Presentation on theme: "The Declaration of Independence and Its Signers"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Declaration of Independence and Its Signers What sacrifices did these men make?
2 ObjectivesStudents will be able to explain the events that led up to the colonies severing ties with Great BritainStudents will understand the main grievances the colonials had with Great BritainStudents will be able to analyze the importance of the Declaration of Independence today
3 Essential QuestionsWhat were four factors that led to the drafting and approval of the Declaration of Independence?How can the formation of the American government be seen as an illustration of the Enlightenment philosophy?What were three purposes of the Declaration of Independence?What were 4 grievances that the American Colonists had against Great Britain in 1776?How well does America today live up to the ideals of the Declaration of Independence?
4 Background to Declaration of Independence Mercantilism: economic policy from in which nations encouraged exports as a means of collecting gold and silverGovernment controls all tradeColonies ensured a safe and steady stream of raw materials for England, including fur, fish, cotton, tobacco, and indigoColonies were expected to import manufactured and processed goods like iron products and teaNavigation Act: England regulated what its colonies could and could not trade
5 Background to the Declaration of Independence After England won the French and Indian War, King George III demanded control over the coloniesKing George and Parliament felt the colonists should bear some of the costs and administration of the areas acquired from France.Parliament passed several new acts designed to shift to the Americans some of the cost of defense
6 Background to the Declaration of Independence Stamp Act: required that all printed materials be stamped to indicate that tax had been paidEngland began to change trade policies as well by used a new monopoly on teaColonists were angered over the taxes“No taxation without representation”Stamp Act was repealed in 1766Boston Massacre 1770 rioting over taxes and the British soldiers killed a man outside of the courthouse in Boston. Crispus Attucks first to die
7 Why Did the Declaration of Independence Happen? Boston Tea Party: a group of angry colonists boarded 3 ships in Boston and threw the tea overboardIntolerable Acts series of laws designed to punish the people of Massachusetts. It limited the power of the colonial legislature, required quartering of British soldiers and closed the port of BostonFirst Continental Congress formed
8 Second Continental Congress 1775-1776 Convened May 19, 1775George Washington appointed Commander in Chief of the Continental ForcesAppointed 5 men to write a declaration stating the colonies intent and reasons for independenceJune delegates met and debated, each colony had one voteDeliberated for one yearJanuary 1776 Common Sense by Thomas Paine explained why there should be independence to the public
9 Resolution of Differences Second Continental Congress drafted the Declaration of Independence. Approved for signature July 2July Declaration written by Thomas Jefferson was signed, John Hancock signed first with the largest signatureSevered ties with Great Britain
10 Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson understood what the actions entailedWanted to make sure the document explained why the colonists wanted to separateThe second paragraph lays down the philosophy for the decision.“All men are equal”Government was to protect “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness,” fundamental rights of allWhen the government failed to do so, citizens have a right to overthrow itOverthrow is not for trivial reasons, but when treatment becomes “absolute despotism”
11 Three Basic Principles of the Declaration of Independence Natural Rights: life, liberty, and the pursuit of happinessPopular Sovereignty: People are the source of political authorityOrder: Importance of stability, overthrowing a government is only the last resort
12 List of Grievances that were Improper Actions by the King Dismissing colonial legislatures and denying the colonists their right for self-governmentTax the colonists without their consentMaintaining an army in the colonies without the consent of the legislature and elevating the military above civilian authorityForcing colonists to house British soldiers in their house
13 List of Grievances that were Improper Actions by the King Making judges dependent on the King for their salaries and their tenure in officeRefusing colonists the right to a fair trial in front of a jury of their peersCutting off the trade of the coloniesAbolishing the Charters, forms of government, and important laws of the coloniesRefusing to address colonial grievancesRenouncing the King’s authority to govern the colonies by waging war on themEncouraging domestic violence and Indian attacks on the colonies
14 Results from the Declaration of Independence 86 Changes were made500 words were taken out1,337 words were included18 signers were under the age of 40Three were in their 20sHalf of the 56 signers were judges and lawyers11 were merchants9 were land owners and farmers12 were doctors, ministers and politicians
15 What do you think some might have been? Do you think there were consequences for severing ties with Great Britain?What do you think some might have been?
16 Impact TodayIdeals of equality led to Civil War, Women’s Rights and the Civil Rights MovementInfluenced the French Revolution in their Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in 1789Latin American Movements of 1890sVietnam War: Ho Chi Minh used it as a reason to invade the southDuring World War II it was kept at Fort Knox KYMore than 1 million Americans view it in the National Archives each year
17 New Hampshire Delegation Josiah BartlettMatthew ThorntonWilliam Whipple
18 Massachusetts Delegation John AdamsSamuel Adams: Had a $35,000 price on his head during the American RevolutionElbridge GerryJohn Hancock: Elected Governor of Massachusetts 10 times and had a $50,000 price on his head during the American RevolutionRobert Treat Paine
19 Rhode Island Delegation William ElleryStephen Hopkins
20 Connecticut Delegation Samuel Huntington: Elected Governor of Connecticut 10 timesRoger ShermanWilliam WilliamsOliver Wolcott
21 New York Delegation William Floyd Francis Lewis Philip Livingston Henry Misner (left before signing)Lewis Morris
22 New Jersey Delegation Abraham Clark John Hart Francis Hopkinson Richard StocktonJohn Witherspoon
23 Pennsylvania Delegation George ClymerJohn Dickinson (did not sign)Benjamin FranklinRobert MorrisJohn Morton
24 Pennsylvania Delegation (cont.) George RossBenjamin RushJames SmithGeorge TaylorJames Wilson
26 Maryland Delegation Charles Carroll: Last signer to die at 95 in 1832 Samuel ChaseWilliam PacaThomas Stone
27 Virginia Delegation Carter Braxton Benjamin Harrison Thomas Jefferson Francis Lightfoot Lee
28 Virginia Delegation (cont.) Richard Henry LeeThomas Nelson, Jr.George Wythe
29 North Carolina Delegation Joseph HewesWilliam HooperJohn Penn
30 South Carolina Delegation Thomas HeywardThomas LynchArthur MiddletonEdward Rutledge
31 Georgia DelegationButton Gwinnett: Died in a duel in 1777 at 42 most valued signature due to only 14 examples that exist.Lyman HallGeorge Walton
32 Information on the Signers The following signers lost their lands, homes and possessions due to signing and being in the American Revolution.Carter BraxtonAbraham Clark: 2 of his sons died in the Revolution, both were prisoners aboard British prison ship, “Jersey” in NY Harbor, 11,000 American captives died on this ship.George ClymerWilliam Ellery
33 Information on the Signers (cont.) The following signers lost their lands, homes and possessions due to signing and being in the American Revolution.William FloydLyman HallJohn Hart: Lost his wife, 13 children and homeThomas HeywardWilliam Hooper
34 Information on the Signers (cont.) The following signers lost their lands, homes and possessions due to signing and being in the American Revolution.Francis Lewis: His wife was taken prisoner by the British and died two years after release. His property near Harlem, NY was completely destroyedArthur Middleton: Was a British prisoner along with Edward Rutledge and Thomas Heyward and sent to St. Augustine, FL.
35 Information on the Signers (cont.) The following signers lost their lands, homes and possessions due to signing and being in the American Revolution.Thomas Nelson: Fired a cannon at his mansion because it was being used by the British and died destitute and bankrupt. He raised $2 million for the Revolution and was never repaid.Richard Stockton: Beaten and put in jail and starved, ending up an invalid. Lost estate and his family had to live off of charity.
36 Information on the Signers (cont.) Philip Livingston: All his possessions in NY were confiscatedLouis Morris: All his timber, crops and livestock were taken and barred from his home and family for 7 yearsDr. John Witherspoon: President of College of New Jersey, later Princeton. Princeton was occupied and library burned.
37 Information on the Signers (cont.) Robert Morris: Merchant in Philadelphia, raised arms and provisions for Washington’s army. He lost 150 ships at sea.Dr. Benjamin RushJohn Morton: Had views of a Tory prior to signing.Thomas Lynch, Jr.: Developed health problems while a company commander in the army. He was told to seek a cure in the West Indies and he and his wife were drowned at sea.
38 Information on the Signers (cont.) Of the 56, nine died of wounds or hardships during the war5 were captured and imprisoned, all brutally treated12 saw their homes burned17 lost everything they ownedNot one went back on their wordAll stood by the Declaration of Independence
39 Results from the Declaration of Independence Most of them had large estates, all but two had familiesEach had more to lose from revolution than gainJohn Hancock already had a price on him and had the largest signature to ensure the King could read it
40 Questions to Answer: CHOOSE 4 50 points What were four factors that led to the drafting and approval of the Declaration of Independence?How can the formation of the American government be seen as an illustration of the Enlightenment philosophy?What were three purposes of the Declaration of Independence?What were 4 grievances that the American Colonists had against Great Britain in 1776?Why was it necessary for Jefferson to outline the philosophy of the new nation instead of just listing what they king did wrong?What does “pursuit of happiness” mean?How well does America today live up to the ideals of the Declaration of Independence?
41 Results from the Signing of the Declaration of Independence Open Response: CHOOSE ONECan you connect the actions of the British Parliament towards to colonists to the start of the American Revolution? Use three actions to support your case. Describe each action and explain how it led to colonial discontent and revolt.What are two lessons about decision making emphasized today in our study of the signers of the Declaration of Independence? Were there costs involved? What were the rewards and consequences of the decisions made by these men?