Presentation on theme: "Social Movements Weeks 14-15 in Syllabus. Social Movement A Political Social Movement An ongoing organization of people working to achieve a common political."— Presentation transcript:
Social Movement A Political Social Movement An ongoing organization of people working to achieve a common political goal outside the normal electoral political process
Three Ingredients for a Social Movement Grievance Resources Frame
Grievance Perceived Wrong Not Addressed by Politics as Usual
Resources Tools of Power People Organization Money Leadership Connections (allies) Thurgood Marshal US Supreme Court Justice
Frame Define the Issue Identify an Opportunity Calls to Action Usually 3 levels
History of Theory Theory seeks to understand when and why social movements emerge. Early Social Movements focus on Grievance. People mobilize when their grievance was severe Does this work? Do those with the most severe problems or grievances mobilize social movements?
History of Theory Resource Mobilization Theory: 1960s and 1970s Not the grievance, but the access to new resources explains social movements People mobilize when they can. New resources make them more able to mobilize, so they do. Reasonable?
History of Theory US Theory: Political Opportunity Structure Theory: 1980s and 1990s Yes, resources matter, but we also need to look at opportunities. People mobilize when something creates a window of opportunity. Change in environment New political situation Special event draws attention to our issue
History of Theory European Theory: New Social Movements School: 1980s and 1990s Resources matter, but how an issue is articulated matters more. Movements arise when leaders can “Frame” the issue in a way that “resonates” with people’s emotions How the issue is pitched makes all the difference Leadership matters Not only defining the issue Also articulating an appropriate response is crucial.
My Synthesis: Three Ingredients for a Social Movement Grievance Resources More is better New is better
My Synthesis: Three Ingredients for a Social Movement: Cont. Frame Leaders must articulate an effective Frame – define the issue in a moving way Leaders must identify and publicize an opportunity Why is it possible to win now, and perhaps only now when it usually is not possible Leaders must articulate a coherent Call to Action to involve all possible supporters –3 levels Difficult, costly, and dangerous for the zealots Costly but safe for the committed with a real life Easy, low-risk, low-cost for the casual supporter
Social Movement Case Studies Civil Rights Movement: Time frame: 1958- 1970 Grievance: Racial Discrimination Segregation – Jim Crow Laws Unequal treatment
Civil Rights Movement: Grievance: Is this the worst time in US history for African Americans? Why mobilize now? Early theory not so helpful
Civil Rights Movement: Resources: What’s new? Post WWII Blacks in America: Higher education levels (GI Bill) Better Jobs Higher Incomes Post WWII Organization Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC) NAACP stronger College Student Organizations
Civil Rights Movement: Resources: What’s new? Allies in Post WWII US President not hostile (Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson) Executive branch allies: Bobby Kennedy, etc. US Supreme Court supportive 1948 Shelley V Kraemer 1954 Brown V Board of Education, etc.
Civil Rights Movement: Resources: What’s new? Network News: Walter Cronkite ACLU Jewish immigrants Deep commitment to others’ rights White student movements Etc…. too numerous to cover here.
Civil Rights Movement: Resources: What’s new? Leadership SCLC leaders, esp. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Other leaders: Malcolm X, etc.
Civil Rights Movement: Frame: Define the issue Segregation/discrimination is Un-American I have a dream… that one day this great nation shall live up to it’s creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal…” Diagnosed a collective Cognitive Dissonance
Civil Rights Movement: Frame: Identify an opportunity Recognized changing culture Recognized new allies Recognized Supreme Court’s new tone Jumped on Rosa Parks’ protest and the spontaneous boycott
Civil Rights Movement: Frame: Call to action Peaceful civil disobedience Borrowed from ??? Boycotts Sit-ins Rallies Confrontational stuff for the Zealots Protests deliberately staged when they would provoke violent responses in front of TV cameras Many were beaten Some were killed Many were jailed
Civil Rights Movement: Frame: Call to action: middle level Request help from ACLU Request help from Ladies’ Auxiliaries in local congregations and other committed people with “real lives” Pack lunches Make jail visits Be witnesses to law violations Donate money
Civil Rights Movement: Frame: Call to action: middle level Request assistance from government officials outside the South Request attention and coverage of real and dramatic news for broadcast nationally
Civil Rights Movement: Frame: Call to action: Low level Ask for small donations Ask for letters to Congress Ask for votes during elections