Presentation on theme: "An evaluation of the reasons for the development of the Civil Rights campaign, after 1945. Issue 5."— Presentation transcript:
1An evaluation of the reasons for the development of the Civil Rights campaign, after 1945. Issue 5
2Reasons for campaign development post 1945 The continuation of prejudice anddiscriminationservicemen in the Second World Warthe experience of blackemergence of effective black leadersof Martin Luther Kingthe roleformation of effective black organizations
3IntroductionContextLine of argumentFactorsHistorical views
42012: How important was the emergence of effective black leaders in the growing demand for Civil Rights between 1945 and 1968?2010: How far was the growth of the Civil Rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s due to the emergence of effective black leaders?
5Experience of WWIIBlack soldiers talked about ‘the Double-V-Campaign’: Victory in the war and victory for Civil Rights at homePhilip Randolph is credited with highlighting the problems faced by black Americans during World War TwoPlanned March on Washington in 1941 to protest against racial discrimination - Roosevelt’s response – Executive order 8802Roosevelt also established the Fair Employment Practices Committee to investigate incidents of discriminationCreation of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) 1942Beginning of a mass movement for Civil Rights.
6Continuing racial discrimination pushed many black Americans to demand civil rights The experience of war emphasised freedom, democracy and human rights yet in USA Jim Crow laws still existed and lynching went unpunishedThe Emmet Till murder trial and its publicityEducation: 1954 Brown v Board of Education of Topeka; 1957 Little Rock Central High SchoolTransport: 1955 Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
7Effective black organisations formed 1957 Martin Luther King and other black clergy formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to coordinate the work of Civil Rights groupsKing urged African Americans to use peaceful methods1960 a group of black and white college students organised Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to help the Civil Rights movementThey joined with young people from the SCLC, CORE and NAACP in staging sit-ins, boycotts marches and freedom ridesCombined efforts of the Civil Rghts groups ended discrimination in many public places including restaurants, hotels, and theatres.
8The emergence of effective black leaders Malcolm X – inspirational, but more confrontational. Articulate voice of Nation of IslamStokely Carmichael – Black power and rejection of much of MLK’s non violent approach. A direct ideas descendant of Marcus GarveyAll leaders attracted media coverage, large followings and divided opinion across USABlack Panthers attracted attention but lost support by their confrontational tacticsOther leaders and organisations eclipsed by media focus on main personalities.
9Role of Martin Luther King Martin Luther King – inspirational. Linked with SCLC.Peaceful non violence and effective use of the mediaHistorians mixed about the importance of his role to the movement