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An evaluation of the reasons for the development of the Civil Rights campaign, after 1945. Issue 5.

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Presentation on theme: "An evaluation of the reasons for the development of the Civil Rights campaign, after 1945. Issue 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 An evaluation of the reasons for the development of the Civil Rights campaign, after 1945. Issue 5

2 Reasons for campaign development post 1945 The continuation of prejudice and discrimination the experience of black servicemen in the Second World War emergence of effective black leaders the role of Martin Luther King formation of effective black organizations

3 Introduction Context Line of argument Factors Historical views

4 2012: How important was the emergence of effective black leaders in the growing demand for Civil Rights between 1945 and 1968? 2010: How far was the growth of the Civil Rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s due to the emergence of effective black leaders?

5 Experience of WWII Black soldiers talked about ‘the Double-V-Campaign’: Victory in the war and victory for Civil Rights at home Philip Randolph is credited with highlighting the problems faced by black Americans during World War Two Planned March on Washington in 1941 to protest against racial discrimination - Roosevelt’s response – Executive order 8802 Roosevelt also established the Fair Employment Practices Committee to investigate incidents of discrimination Creation of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) 1942 Beginning of a mass movement for Civil Rights.

6 Continuing racial discrimination pushed many black Americans to demand civil rights The experience of war emphasised freedom, democracy and human rights yet in USA Jim Crow laws still existed and lynching went unpunished The Emmet Till murder trial and its publicity Education: 1954 Brown v Board of Education of Topeka; 1957 Little Rock Central High School Transport: 1955 Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

7 Effective black organisations formed 1957 Martin Luther King and other black clergy formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to coordinate the work of Civil Rights groups King urged African Americans to use peaceful methods 1960 a group of black and white college students organised Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to help the Civil Rights movement They joined with young people from the SCLC, CORE and NAACP in staging sit-ins, boycotts marches and freedom rides Combined efforts of the Civil Rghts groups ended discrimination in many public places including restaurants, hotels, and theatres.

8 The emergence of effective black leaders Malcolm X – inspirational, but more confrontational. Articulate voice of Nation of Islam Stokely Carmichael – Black power and rejection of much of MLK’s non violent approach. A direct ideas descendant of Marcus Garvey All leaders attracted media coverage, large followings and divided opinion across USA Black Panthers attracted attention but lost support by their confrontational tactics Other leaders and organisations eclipsed by media focus on main personalities.

9 Role of Martin Luther King Martin Luther King – inspirational. Linked with SCLC. Peaceful non violence and effective use of the media Historians mixed about the importance of his role to the movement


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