Phonological Awareness Phonological awareness involves: segmenting- pulling apart spoken words into sounds blending- putting sounds back together manipulating- adding, deleing, and substituting these sounds South Dakota Standards
Phonological Awareness Phonological awareness involves: segmenting- pulling apart spoken words into sounds blending- putting sounds back together manipulating- adding, deleing, and substituting these sounds South Dakota Standards Students are able to relate letters and sounds, and identify patterns in word and phases
Phonemes Phonemic awareness specifically focuses on individual sounds (known as phonemes) in words Phonemes are the smallest units of sound in spoken words /m/ 1st phoneme /a/ 2 nd phoneme /t/ 3 rd phoneme
What We Know from Research Phonological awareness instruction improves children’s understanding of how the words in spoken language are represented in print. Phonemic awareness helps all children learn to read
What We Know from Research Phonemic awareness instruction is most effective when children are taught to use letters to represent phonemes Phonemic awareness also helps preschoolers, kindergartners, and first graders learn to spell Page 4 from Put Reading First Booklet
Phonological Awareness Continuum TypesDescriptionExamples Phonemes Blending phonemes into words, segmenting words into individual phonemes, and manipulating phonemes in spoken words /k/ /a/ /t/ /sh/ /i/ /p/ /s/ /t/ /o/ /p/ Onsets and Rimes Blending or segmenting the initial consonant or consonant cluster (onset) and he vowel and consonant sounds spoken after it (rime) /m/ /ice/ /sh/ /ake/ Syllables Blending syllables to say words or segmenting spoken words into syllables /mag/ /net/ /pa/ /per/ Sentence Segmentation Segmenting sentences into spoken words The dog ran away. 1 2 3 4 Alliteration Rhyme Producing groups of words that begin with the same initial sound Matching the ending sounds of words Ten tiny tadpoles cat, hat, bat, sat
Rhyme Match between ending sounds of words Use Nursery Rhymes and Other Rhymes
Ten Cats Have Hats by Jean Marzollo One bear has a chair, but I have a hat.
Activites focused on rhyme Ten Cats Have Hats by Jean Marzollo Two ducks have trucks, but I have a hat. Picture clue allows them to predict author’s rhyme.
Activities focused on rhyme “The Ants Go Marching” The ants go marching one by one, Hurrah! The ants go marching one by one, Hurrah! The ants go marching one by one, The little one stops to have some fun, And they all go down to the ground, To get out of the sun. Boom! Boom! Boom!
Activities focused on rhyme “The Ants Go Marching” The ants go marching two by two, Hurrah! The ants go marching two by two, Hurrah! The ants go marching two by two, The little one stops to _____________, And they all go down to the ground, To get out of the sun. Boom! Boom! Boom!
Activities focused on rhyme (oral) “Down by the Bay” “Did you ever see a whale with a polka dot tail?” “The Corner Grocery Story” “There were peas, peas walking on their knees at the store, at the store” “There was steak, steak, going shake shake at the store, at the store” Yopp & Yopp (1996). Oo-pples & boo-noo-noos: Songs & activities for phonemic awareness. Harcourt Bace School Publishers
Alliteration Focus on initial phonemes Steven Kellogg's alphabet book Aster Aardvark’s Alphabet Adventures
Sentence Segmentation Words in Sentences Have children count words 1 2 3 4 Say the parts of a sentence
Syllable Blending and Segmentation SyllablesBlending syllables together to form words Segmenting words into syllables
Activities with syllables manipulation “Clap, Clap, Clap Your Hands” (clues) Clap, clap, clap your hands, Clap your hands together. Clap, clap, clap your hands, Clap your hands together Snap, Snap, Snap your hands, Snap your hands together. Snap, Snap, Snap your hands, Snap your hands together continue
Activities with syllables manipulation “Clap, Clap, Clap Your Hands” (clues) Say, say, say these parts. Say these parts together. Say, say, say these parts, Say these parts together: Teacher moun (pause) tain (children respond, “mountain!”) Teacher love (pause) ly (children respond, “lovely!”) Teacher un (pause) der (children respond, “under!”) Teacher tea (pause) cher (children respond, “teacher!”)
Activities with syllables manipulation How Many Syllables (clues) Tikki Tikki Tembo by Arlene Mosel Clap syllables in names + picture Tingo Tango Mango Tree by Marcia Vaughan Iguana’s name is Sombala Bombala Rombala Roh Flamingo’s name is Kokio Lokio Molio Koh Parrot’s name is Dillaby Dallaby Doh Turtle’s name is Nanaba Panaba Tanaba Goh Bat’s name is Bitteo Biteo
Activities with syllables manipulation “Humpty Dumpty” (clues) Recite “Humpty Dumpty” rhyme Humpty Dumpty broke & I have some broken words. Let’s help put the words back together again. pop – si - cle Snap the cubes together to say the entire word.
Activities with syllables manipulation Teacher, May We? (clues) Teacher: “You may jump the number of times as there are syllables (some teachers say “beats” or “chunks” for syllables) in the bunny.” Students: “Teacher, may we?”
Onset-Rime Blending and Segmentation Onsets and Rimes Onset: initial consonant or consonant cluster of the word Rime: vowel and consonants that follow the onset In the word ca, the /k/ is the onset and the –at is the rime
Activities with onset-rime manipulation Going on a Word Hunt (clues) Teacher: Going on a word hunt! (slap toes) (slap knees) (slap toes) (slap knees) Students repeat Teacher: What’s this word? (slap toes) (slap knees) (slap toes) (slap knees) Students repeat Teacher: /m/ (pause) /ap/ pause (slap toes) (slap knees) Students repeat Together: mmmmmmmmmmmap map! (slide hands from toes to knee) (slap knees)
Activities with onset-rime manipulation Make a Word (letters) It’s a word. It is not a word.
Phoneme Blending and Segmentation Phoneme Blending Segmenting Words into Phonemes Listening to a sequence of individual sounds and combining them to pronounce a word Breaking a word into its individual sounds
Activities with phoneme manipulation Cock-a-doodle-moo! (oral) Cock-a-doodle-moo! By Bernard Most
Activities with phoneme manipulation Bag Game (cues)
Supporting phonemic awareness development in the classroom Hallie Kay Yopp Ruth Helen Yopp The Reading Teacher Vol.54, No. 2 October 2000
Using Songs Tune to London Bridge /b/ is a sound that starts these words Ball, bounce, bear, ball, bounce, bear /b/ is a sound that starts these words Ball, bounce, bear and b_________.
Using Songs Tune to “Three Blind Mice” Buh buh buh, Buh buh, buh; Hear how it sounds, hear how it sounds. It starts with /b/ and it sounds like this: Buh buh buh, Buh buh, buh
Using Songs Tune to London Bridge /K/ is the letter that sounds like kuh, Sounds like kuh, sounds like kuh, /K/ is the letter that sounds like kuh, In words like key, cat, and car!
Using Songs Tune to “Jimmy Cracked Corn” Who has a /d/ word to share with us? It must start with the /d/ sounds! Dog is a word that starts with /d/ Dog stars with the /d/ sound.
Oo-pples and Boo-noo-noos; Songs and Activties for phonemic Awareness Hallie Kay Yopp Ruth Helen Yopp
Phoneme Manipulation Working with Phonemics Add /s/ to beginning of pin=spin Delete /t/ at beginning of trap=rap Substitute /i/ in lip with /a/=lap
Grouping for Instruction Small Groups Teach phonological awareness, especially phonemic awareness, in small groups
Explicit and Systematic Phonological Awareness Instruction Focus on types of phonological awareness most closely associated with beginning reading and spelling achievement by linking phonemes to print Teach phonological awareness explicitly and regularly schedule instruction
Explicit and Systematic Phonological Awareness Instruction During a lesson, target only one type of phonological awareness, such as blending phonemes or segmenting words into phonemes Begin with easier activities and progress to more difficult ones Model each activity As soon as possible, help children make the connection between letters and sounds to read and spell words
Ongoing Practice in Phonological Awareness Provide opportunities to practice phonological awareness with teacher support and guidance Integrate practice in phonological awareness throughout the curriculum and school day
Word Play Enhances phonological awareness as children practice activities using words an concepts in stories and books that are read aloud Choose one of your children’s books Develop a word play activity for your assigned part On an index card, write title of book and activity Post on the wall
Phonological Awareness and Phonics Phonological awareness instruction helps children make the connection between letters and sounds During reading and spelling activities, children begin to combine their knowledge of phonological awareness and phonics Phonological Awareness Phonics
Taking a Closer Look Phonological awareness instruction is addressed in different types of published programs: Comprehensive core reading programs Supplementary phonological awareness programs
Consider Diversity: English Language Learners Capitalize on native language ability Teach blending, segmenting, and manipulating individual phonemes and syllables Accept oral approximations Focus on words children already know
Progress Monitoring: Phonological Awareness Verify Identify Specify Recognize Results of individual administered reading inventories can help you make informed instructional decisions