Presentation on theme: "Solid Waste Management in the Caribbean. Objectives: 1. Highlight the challenges associated with solid waste management in the Caribbean. 2. Explain the."— Presentation transcript:
Solid Waste Management in the Caribbean. Objectives: 1. Highlight the challenges associated with solid waste management in the Caribbean. 2. Explain the roles of supra local and international organizations in the management of solid waste in the Caribbean. 3. Compare the management of solid waste in the Caribbean to that of more developed countries. 4. Suggest solutions to the challenges faced by the Caribbean in Solid waste Management.
Introduction. Solid Waste: Any unwanted material that no longer serve the purpose it was intended for. Solid waste is defined as non-toxic, manufacturing, commercial and domestic waste including household organic trash, street sweepings, hospital and institutional Garbage, and construction wastes (Planning Institute of Jamaica, 2007).
Introduction cont’d. SWM in the Caribbean is characterised by a series of challenges. [ inappropriate disposal methods, inconsistency with garbage collection e.t.c] Supra local and international organizations plays an integral role in assisting the region in managing its solid waste affairs. When compared to the MDCs the Caribbean nature of managing solid waste is less sustainable. In an attempt to alter discrepancies associated with solid waste management in the Caribbean governments across the region have adopted strategies and implemented polices and other regulations which are in accordance with sustainable solid waste management.
Solid Waste Management challenges 1. Management of solid waste in the Caribbean is considered to be increasingly challenging and demanding due to spatial limitations [Coastal litter] 2. limited financial, human and natural resources, the unavailability of scale-efficient technologies, trade- dependent economies, weak institutions and weak governance.
Land availability is also major problem because Caribbean states as mention before have spatial limitations resulting in them facing the challenge of choice of optimal location. (Phillip and Thorne 2013). The shortage of human resources is another limitation in Caribbean countries. Populations of Caribbean countries are considered small. Due to this constraint the population of these nations cannot support the range of technical skills necessary to plan, implement and monitor waste management systems. [eg lacking facilitates to combat the ground water contanation in Riverton city Jamaica]
Challenges Cont’d Another constraint in the Caribbean is the unavailability of scale-efficient technologies for proper disposal of waste. According to Phillip and Thorne (2013), “landfill is the most scale-efficient disposal method. Such scale efficiency is often not attainable with waste collection technologies such as standard garbage compactors, as the fuel and labour inputs generate high per capita collection costs for small Caribbean municipalities.” (p. 18).
Solid Waste Management in the Caribbean V.S MDC CaribbeanMore Developed Countries Landfill disposal is the most common method of SWM. Lack of recycling market. More sustainable solid waste management. Hierarchy based on priority. Prevention reuse recycle Energy recovery Disposal [ e.g US and EU] Produce less solid waste.Produce more solid [ 16 tonnes of material per person per year – related to socioeconomic development of a region] MDC tend to produce more waste. Produce more organic wasteProduce more inorganic waste [eg Tins, plastics etc.] Has insufficient financial and social capital to improve solid waste management. Lack of integration in regional solid waste management. Outside of the Caribbean Environment Programme and the Barbados Action Plan there is not really a body which serves to joint Caribbean countries to work together as a unit to effectively manage their Solid waste. “National integrated Waste Management Strategies are lacking in many countries while in others are in need of urgent updating Countries could benefit from Regional and where appropriate sub-regional Waste Management Strategies especially for activities such as Waste Diversion & Recycling” Has more resources to attain effective solid waste management. More developed countries are often unified in their efforts to combat issues relating to solid waste management. The EU as a region have drafted several solid waste management laws such as that which force car manufactures to produce items that are more recyclable. Lack of space of garbage disposal. Available space is exceeded. Land fill is not a grave issue in developed countries has it is in the Caribbean.
Role of Supra local/international organization. Supra – locals: NSWMA (Jamaica), SLSWMA (St.Lucia), SWMCOL (Solid Waste Management Company LTD(Trinidad and Tobago) Supra – International: UNEPCEP, Pan American Health Organization, Caribbean Environmental Health Institute in St. Lucia, Barbados Action Plan.
Supra- locals NSWMA – Established in Jamaica, 2001, Has the sole jurisdiction for solid waste management in Jamaica. The authority currently collects, treats and disposes of domestic solid waste while simultaneously regulating the sector. This has proven to be difficult in light of the
The St. Lucia Solid Waste Management Authority (SLSWMA) Establish in 1996 under Act No. 20. With the goal of improving existing standards of public health and environmental quality through more efficient waste management. Provides a garbage collection service to residents throughout the island. This takes the form of a regular collection service and a monthly bulky waste collection service. By using SLSWMA correctly, residents can keep their communities clean.
The Trinidad and Tobago Solid Waste Management Company Limited (SWMCOL) Has been given the overall responsibility for waste management by central government and specific responsibility in the areas of the management of three landfill sites, industrial and commercial solid and liquid waste collection as well as paper and cardboard recycling activities.. This system of waste management incorporates the principles of the 4 R’s – REduce, REuse, REcycle and Rethink.
Role of Supra international organization. Some of the major International organizations involved in solid waste management in the Caribbean include the UNEP which under the regional seas programme (CEP) have formulated a set of protocol to assist in managing land and marine based solid waste. Eg the Solid Waste and Wild life protocol (SAWP). Golder Associates: Based in South America - Assissted Haiti in managing the insurmountable solid waste generated by the 2010 earth quake Other supra International include the: Pan American Health Organization and AUSAID.
Solutions A centralized and undiversified approach- Every neighbourhood is treated in the same manner, as such the differences between them are not observed. Therefore the same SWM strategies are applied throughout all the neighbourhoods. Bureaucratic planning- this involves the use of government to plan the SWM strategies. This solution excludes the views of the locales. Source: Medina (2002)
Solutions Formalizing SWM- this solution to solid waste management focuses on the formal sector only. No attention is given to informal sector activities. Capital intensive measures- involves the use of advanced technology and equipment. Source: Medina (2002).
Solutions The solutions given earlier have been applied by both developed and developing nations. These solutions are however more suitable for developed nations, given the scale of economies of the Caribbean, and the resources that they have. Therefore the Caribbean should utilise different solutions or methods. Diversification of SWM strategies- Caribbean should opt to de-centralize their SWM methods and make them more specific to the issues of waste present in their country. Low cost labour intensive measures- The Caribbean consist of a vast number of individuals living below the poverty line. If these countries offer these individuals are offered jobs in this sector two issues would be reduced simultaneously
Solutions CONT’D Offering refuse collection to squatters- The Caribbean has a vast number of squatter settlements that are growing at a frightening rate. Therefore, these nations have to employ meaures where in the waste that is generated by these communities is collected. China- fastest growing country in the world and and such its issue with waste has been growing simultaneously Jamaica- solid waste management in Jamaica has always involved the use of garbage trucks, burning of garbage, burying and gullying.
China has to implemented a new form of technology to tackle their waste. A circulating fluidised bed- this technology is adapted to the type of waste produced by the country (Themelis 2013). China also sends 17% of its waste to a wte facility, while the remainder is landfilled (Themelis 2013)
Improved and efficient solutions Improved and efficient solutions would include: The drafting of a sanitation policy NSWMA business and cost recovery plan Training of relevant staff to deal with landfilling. Construction of new and improved dumpsites. Use of biodegradable dumpsites. Source: PIOJ (November 2007).
Recommendation Educate the public about sustainable waste management practises. Train relevant individuals to effective manage solid waste. Ensure the individuals governing environmental agencies or sectors possess the relevant qualification.
Bibliography Hoornway, D, Giardelli, N. (2007). Managing municipal waste in Latin America and the Caribbean, integrating the private sector,harnessing incentives. Available: www.ppiaf.org. Last accessed 22nd Nov 2014. Medina, M. (2002). Municipal Solid Waste Management in third world cities. Human Settlement Development. 3 (1), 1.