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© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 1 Lecture Notes Introduction to Translation Dr. Amira Kashgary Semester 1 October 2008
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 2 Translation Dr. Amira Kashgary firstname.lastname@example.org King Abdulaziz University Department of English September 2008
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 3 What is Translation? As a subject, translation is defined as all the processes and methods used to convey meaning of the source language into the target language by means of : * The verb “translate” has been equated with synonyms such as “reader”, “rephrase”, “transmit”, “re express” “replace”.
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 4 What is Translation? We "render", "reproduce", "convey", and "transfer" For example: Writeيكتب حاسوب Computer كمبيوتر
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 5 What is Translation? According to New mark (1981) translation is an attempt to replace a message or a statement in one language by the same message or statement in another language. For Catford (1965) translation is “the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL)’ (20). Nida (1964) defines translation in terms of the receptor’s understanding of the translated text, in other words, the intelligibility of the TL text. Accordingly, translation is “ reproducing in the receptor’s language the closest equivalent of the message of the SL, first in terms of meaning and then in terms of style”
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 6 What is Translation? What all definitions agree on are the following: Translation involves determining two extremes at the same time; the SL demands and the TL demands. Translation involves thinking and rethinking, expressing and re-expressing. Translation involves “equivalence” in respect of different levels of presentation (equivalent in respect of context, of semantics, of grammar, of lexis, etc.) and at different ranks (Word-for-sentence) and in different degrees (fully or partially equivalent)
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 7 What do we translate? We translate nothing but "MEANING".
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 8 What is Meaning? It is a complicated network of language components It is the product of different elements of language. Taken together occurring in a certain type of texts and contexts, and directed to a certain kind of readership.
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 9 language components Words (vocabularyGrammar (syntax)Style Sounds (Phonology)
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 10 What do we translate? We are always interested in how these elements combine, produce, influence, reflect and crystallize meaning.
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 11 How do we translate? Making use of two concepts Processes of TranslationMethods of Translation TransferAnalysisRestructuring
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 12 Processes of Translation It describes how we proceed at translating something in practice, in other words, it is the STAGES of translating
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 13 Processes of Translation Since translation is a communicative process, it has to deal with the following processes: 1. Analysis (Comprehension) 2. Transfer 3. Restructuring (Rearrangement or rewriting)
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 14 What do we translate? The process of Transfer, or what linguists call "Transfer Strategy" can be summarized in the following steps:
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 15 What do we translate? القراءة المتأنية للنص لمعرفة الفكرة العامة حفظ الفكرة العامة في الذهن وتقسيم النص الى مكونات فقرات و جمل ( أي المعاني التفصيلية ) ترجمة المعاني الموجودة في النص المصدر الى معاني في النص الهدف في ضوء المعايير والثقافة كتابة المعنى الواضح في ذهن المترجم باللغة الهدف وبهذا يكون لديه نص مساوي في معناه للنص الأصلي وهذه المرحلة تتعلق بأسلوب النص وهي إضفاء صيغة اللغة الهدف على النص المترجم ( إعادة التركيب ضمن قوانين التركيب في اللغة الهدف ) oSL 1 oSL 2 oRethink oTL 1 oTL 2
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 16 Translation: Process vs. Product We have to distinguish between Translating: the process which refers to the activity rather than the tangible object, and Translation: the product of the process of translating, i.e. the translated text. The word translation can also refer to the abstract concept which encompasses both the process of translating and the product of that process.
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 17 Translation: Process vs. Product In order to arrive at a comprehensive and useful understanding of the process of translating we need to draw on the resources of linguistics, particularly, psycholinguistics and socio linguistics. The first of these examines the process in the mind of the translator, the second places the source language text (SLT) and the target language text (TLT) in their cultural context.
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 18 The Translation Process (Bell, 1991:21) Memory SLT Analysis Synthesis TLT Semantic Representation
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 19 Translation Process 1. The SLT is transformed into a TLT by means of process which take place within memory: 2. The analysis of the language specific text (the SLT) into a universal (non-language specific) semantic representation. 3. The synthesis of that semantic representation into a second language specific text (the TLT).
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 20 Translation Process مثال على أهمية المرحلة الأخيرة في الترجمة وهي الصياغة الأسلوبية التي تضفي على النص بريقه وروحه: In order to bring the Egyptian banking sector in line with international banking norms, a new law 37 was introduced in June 1992. لكي يتماشى القطاع المصرفي المصري مع الأعراف البنكية الدولية تم اصدار قانون جديد ألا وهو 37 في يونيو 1992. في يونيو عام 1992 صدر قانون مصرفي جديد رقم 37 ليتماشى مع القطاع المصرفي مع الأعراف البنكية الدولية.
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 21 Translation Process When dinner was over, the senator made a speech. A speech was made by the senator after dinner. The senator made a post-prandial oration. بعد أن انتهى العشاء، ألقى المسؤول كلمة. ألقى المسؤول خطابا بعد العشاء. ألقى السيد خطابا طنانا رنانا بعد العشاء.
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 22 Methods of Translation literal vs. free semantic vs. communicative formal vs. dynamic pragmatic vs. non-pragmatic creative vs. non-pragmatic
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 23 Methods of Translation Monolingual communication (Bell, 1991 : 18) Code Channel Channel SENDER Signal Receiver Content
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 24 Bilingual communication (Bell, 1991 : 19) Code 1 Channel Channel SENDER Signal 1 Translator Content 1 Code 2 RECEIVER Signal 2 Content 2
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 25 Translation: Process vs. Product 1.Translator receives signal 1 containing message 2. “ recognizes code 1 3. “ decodes signal 1 4. “ retrieves message 5. “ comprehends message 6. “ selects code 2 7. “ encodes message by means of code 2 8. “ selects channel 9. “ transmits signal 2 containing message
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 26 Translation: Process vs. Product There are crucial difference between communication and translation as follows: There are two codes, two signals and consequently two sets of content provided that there is no 100 percent equivalence between languages
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 27 What are the tools of a Translator? 1.Mono-lingual dictionaries (English) Webster’s (unabridged) dictionary The Oxford English dictionary Encyclopedic World dictionary 2.Mono-lingual (Arabic) Al Munjid Al Waseet 3.Bilingual dictionaries English / Arabic Al Mawrid Al Nafees Arabic / English The HansWehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 28 What are the tools of a Translator? 4. Dictionaries of English usage Dictionary of English usage Thesaurus Dictionary of slang terms Dictionaries of Idioms Dictionaries of proverbs
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 29 What are the tools of a Translator? 5.Specialized Dictionaries Encyclopedia (general) Encyclopedia (specialized) Grammar Books Computers
© Amira Kashgary – Lecture Notes 30 Assignments Assignment # 1 Make a list of Arabic words which you find difficult to translate into English. Organize your list according to domains. For example, religion, food, social customs, idiomatic expressions, and so on
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