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Elizabeth Wetzel Jared Broughton Aaron Sprague Caroline Ibbotson Sarah Grillo.

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Presentation on theme: "Elizabeth Wetzel Jared Broughton Aaron Sprague Caroline Ibbotson Sarah Grillo."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elizabeth Wetzel Jared Broughton Aaron Sprague Caroline Ibbotson Sarah Grillo

2 Why Oil? US strong dependence on oil Many uses Industrial boom Definitions: Offshore Crude oil “Oil Basics” U.S. Energy Information Administration. 21 Nov 2010.. Web 2

3 The Problem: Spills Spills from drilling and shipping Faulty equipment Careless or poorly trained workers Natural Disasters Negative effects on aquatic biodiversity Massive marine life mortality rate Effect on food chain 3

4 Major Spills 1. Santa Barbara Spill- January 28, 1969 2. Argo Merchant Vessel- December 15, 1976 3. Burmah Agate- November 1, 1979-January 8, 1980 4. Exxon Valdez- March 24, 1989 5. Cibro Savannah Barge- March 6, 1990 6. Megaborg- June 8, 1990 7. Jupiter- September 16, 1990 8. The barge Bouchard 155, the freighter Balsa 37, and the barge Ocean 255 collision 9. Deepwater Horizon- April 20- August 15, 2010 4

5 Response NOAA Office of Response and Restoration “Our role is stewardship; our product is science.” 5

6 Policies that Impact Oil Drilling National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 Coastal Zone Management of 1972 Energy Policy Conservation Act of 1975 Energy Tax Act of 1978 1981- U.S Congress passed a moratorium on oil drilling in the OCS Moratorium lifted in 2008 under Bush Administration MARPOL- 1983 Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution Act 1990 Oceans Act of 2000 6

7 Polices Developed for Clean-Up Regulation 1970 Formation of the NOAA through US Department of Commerce. Clean Water Act Amendments of 1972 Comprehensive Environmental Rehabilitation, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 7

8 National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 Became effective January 1, 1970 First introduced February 18, 1969 by Senator Henry M. Jackson Passed Senate on Dec. 20, 1969 Passed House of Representatives Dec. 23, 1969 Signed by President Richard Nixon Jan. 1, 1970 8

9 National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration Published in July of 1970 Commission was created consisting of 15 members on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources to review and assess existing and planned U.S. marine science activities. Submitted document entitled Our Nation and the Seas Set the stage for the evolution of U.S. current programs in marine science and research development Approved and passed by President Richard Nixon in October 1970 9

10 MARPOL Combination of two treaties adopted in 1973 and 1978 1973 was an International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1978 related to 1973 convention Known as MARPOL 73/78 Entered into force on October 2, 1983 as a combination of MARPOL 73/78 10

11 Comprehensive Environmental Rehabilitation, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Most commonly known as “Superfund” Signed by President Jimmy Carter as one of his last acts in office Administered by the EPA In response to Love Canal, NY after discovery of chemical dump Had a history of failure 11

12 Oil Pollution Act of 1990 In response to the Exxon Valdez spill into the Prince William Sound Amended the Clean Water Act OPA created the national Oil Spill Trust Fund, which is available to provide up to one billion dollars per spill incident 12

13 “There are many agencies involved, but the national good that comes from this, and what you can bring together to respond to it, is quite remarkable and demonstrates the capabilities that we have in this country.” - Coast Guard Rear Adm. Mary Landry (on Gulf oil spill) 13

14 Drilling and Responses to Problems Oil spills have a broad impact – Environment (air, water, sediment deposits, land), jobs, etc. Many agencies are involved in the policy implementation and clean-up process Policies usually involve heavy fines to discourage spills and encourage corporations to be careful in their drilling practices (especially OPA of 1990). 14

15 Agencies Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Department of the Interior (DOI) – Mineral Management Service (MMS) – Fish and Wildlife Service – National Park Service Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) Internal Revenue Service (IRS) U.S. Coast Guard (branch of the U.S. military) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 15

16 Agencies, cont. Department of Defense (DOD) Small Business Administration Department of Labor Department of Energy (DOE) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) United States Geological Survey (USGS) And many, many more… 16

17 17

18 Policies Policies typically enacted once a problem arises Reactive, not proactive Radical policy decisions seldom happen due to risk of the loss of political capital Ex.: Exxon Valdez (1989); no comprehensive government policy on oil spills – Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Ex.: MMS drilling permit practices (2010); ignored protocols 18

19 Moratorium on Offshore Drilling 1981: Congress approved moratorium Protect beaches and tourism on east and west coasts. Drilling in Alaska and western part of the Gulf OK. 1990: President George H.W. Bush, set to last until 2002. 19

20 Moratorium, cont. 1998: President Clinton renewed it in 1998, extending the coverage of the policy 2008. 2008: President George W. Bush repealed. – Cited high gas prices, Congress approved. 2010: Obama, renewed. November 30, 2010. – Give companies time to develop/implement safety measures. 20

21 OPA, 1990 Comes out of a long tradition of policies – OPA, 1924 (Army Corps of Engineers) – Clean Water Restoration Act – Water Quality Improvement Act – CERCLA Response to the Exxon Valdez spill Doesn’t deal directly with drilling but impacts it Steep penalties 21

22 Energy Policy and Conversion Act (1975) & Gas Guzzler Tax (1978) Responses to Oil Shock I (1973) EPCA signed by President Ford created a domestic petroleum reserve 1 billion barrel cap. Department of Energy Gas Guzzler Tax Lower fuel economy, higher taxes IRS 22

23 NGOs 23

24 Average Large Spills Per Year Figure 1 24

25 Percentage of Oil Split Figure 2 25

26 Split vs. Shipped Figure 3 26

27 Cause of Spillage Spills < 7 tons Spills > 700 tons Figure 4Figure 5 27

28 Suggestions Obama’s current policies Gulf Oil Spill in 2010 Needs to increase policies 28

29 Suggestions The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 29

30 Suggestions Acts passed National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 Clean Water Act Amendments of 1972 Coastal Zone Management of 1972 30

31 Suggestions For the most part, policies have been fairly effective. Government needs to realize the gravity of the situation 31

32 Works Cited Berry, James. Dennison, Mark. The Environmental Law and Compliance Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2000. Print. Bill Summary & Status: 9 th Congress (1975-1976) S.622. The Library of Congress: THOMAS. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. Bush Lifts Offshore Drilling Ban. British Broadcasting Corporation, 14 July 2008. Web. 21 Nov. 2010..> Chasek, Pamela S., David L. Downie, and Janet Welsh Brown. Global Environmental Politics: Fifth Edition. Westview Press, 2010. Clinton Extends Moratorium on Offshore Oil Drilling. Cable News Network, 1998. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. Deepwater BP Oil Spill. The White House, 2010. Web. 15 Nov. 2010..> “Effects of Oil Spills on Wildlife and Habitat.” December 2004. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 21 November 2010.. Web. Clean Water Act. 10 Feb. 2009. 21 November 2010.. Web. Gas Guzzler Tax and Vehicles. Environmental Protection Agency. Web. 20 Nov. 2010..> 32

33 Gradwohl, Judith. Oil Pollution. Ocean Planet: A Smithsonian Exhibit. 21 November 2010.. Web. Haerens, Margaret, Ed. Offshore Drilling. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2010. Print. Hoff, Rebecca Z., ed. Oil Spills in Coral Reefs: Planning and Response Considerations. United States Department of Commerce, 2001. Print. “International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL).” International Maritime Organization. 2010. Web. 16 November 2010. Convention-for-the-Prevention-of-Pollution-from-Ships-(MARPOL).aspx. Kurtz, Rick S. “Coastal Oil Pollution: Spills, Crisis, and Policy Change.” Review of Policy Research 21.2 (2004): 201-219. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 11 Nov. 2010. Logan, Gail. “Procedure for Cleaning Up Oil Spills.” eHow. Web. 20 November 2010. McCluney, Christen N. U.S. Department of Defense News. U.S. Department of Defense, 18 May 2010. Web. 15 Nov. 2010..> 33

34 “National Environmental Policy Act of 1969”. Federal Historic Preservation Laws. Web. 16 November 2010. Nuka Research and Planning Group, LLC. 21 November 2010.. Web. “Ocean Planet.” Oil Pollution. Smithsonian Institution, 1995. Web. 17 November 2010. Oil Pollution Act of 1990.” United States Coast Guard-National Pollution Funds Center. 6 May 2010. Web. 16 November 2010. “Oil Pollution Act Overview.” United States Environmental Protection Agency. 17 March 2009. Web. 16 November 2010. OR&R Web Team. Office of Response and Restoration. 19 November 2010. 21 November 2010.. Web. Owens, Peter. Oil and Chemical Spills. Cleveland: Lucent Books, 2004. Print. Rosenbaum, Walter A. Environmental Politics and Policy: Eighth Edition. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2011. Print. Savage, Charlie. “Sex, Drug Use and Graft Cited in Interior Department.” The New York Times 11 September 2008, New York ed.: A1. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.. 34

35 Shea, Eileen L. “A History of NOAA”. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration- U.S. Department of Commerce. Ed. Skip Theberge. 1999, 1987. Web. 16 November 2010. “Statistics.” The International Tanker Owners pollution Federation. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation, 2009. Web. 15 November 2010. “Superfund: History of Failure.” National Center for Policy Analysis. 21 March 1996. Web. 16 November 2010. “The Federal Government's Role In BP Oil.” Host Neal Conan. Talk of the Nation. National Public Radio. 25 May 2010. Web. 22 Nov. 2010.. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 6 August 2010. 21 Nov. 2010.. United States. Cong. House. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Pub. L. 91-190, 42 U.S.C. 1 Jan. 1970.. 21 November 2010. Web. United States Senate and House of Representatives. Oil Pollution Act of 1990. P.L. 106– 580. 29 Dec 2000. 21 Nov. 2010.. Web. 35

36 Urbina, Ian. “U.S. Said to Allow Drilling Without Needed Permits.” The New York Times 14 May 2010, New York ed.: A1. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.. “U.S. Issues New Moratorium On Offshore Drilling.” National Public Radio. 25 July 2010. Web. 20 Nov. 2010.. Valtin, Tom. Offshore Drilling Moratorium Threatened. Sierra Club.. Web. Weingroff, Richard F. “Origins of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969.” U.S. Department of Transportation-Federal Highway Administration. 15 January 2009. Web.16 November 2010.. What is Superfund? 1 October 2010. 21 November 2010.. Web. 36

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