Unit 7 Language Structure See the following sentences and pay attention to the grammar rules they use: 1.I don’t remember doing it. // I’ll never forget seeing the Three Gorges. I’ll try to remember to do / not to forget to do whatever you tell me to. He stopped reading the newspaper and spoke to me. He stopped to speak to me. 2. Here is an article for you to translate into English. It’s easy enough for you to finish it in a week. 3. I found it easier to give a free talk because I can never learn anything by heart. 4. They are talking about having a bicycle race again.
Unit 7 Read the following pairs of sentences and match the verbs in bold with their meanings. 1.We regret to tell you that the position of Junior Accountant has been filled. 2.I regret not travelling abroad when I was younger. a.be sorry to b.have second thoughts about a past event 3.Cathy forgot to turn off the oven before she left. 4.I’ll never forget meeting the Prime Minister. a.forget a past event b.forget something you are supposed to do
Unit 7 Read the following pairs of sentences and match the verbs in bold with their meanings. 5.Remember to buy some bread on your way home. 6.I remember visiting London in 1987. a.remember something before doing it b.remember a past event 7.I stopped to buy the paper from the newsagent’s. 8.She stopped crying only when I promised her that I would buy her an ice cream. a.to stop permanently b.to stop temporarily
Unit 7 Read the following pairs of sentences and match the verbs in bold with their meanings. 1.We regret to tell you that the position of Junior Accountant has been filled. 2.I regret not travelling abroad when I was younger. a.be sorry to b.have second thoughts about a past event 3.Cathy forgot to turn off the oven before she left. 4.I’ll never forget meeting the Prime Minister. a.forget a past event b.forget something you are supposed to do a b b a
Unit 7 Read the following pairs of sentences and match the verbs in bold with their meanings. 5.Remember to buy some bread on your way home. 6.I remember visiting London in 1987. a.remember something before doing it b.remember a past event 7.I stopped to buy the paper from the newsagent’s. 8.She stopped crying only when I promised her that I would buy her an ice cream. a.to stop permanently b.to stop temporarily a b b a
Unit 7 Complete the following sentences by using the - ing form or the full infinitive of the verbs in brackets. 1.Patrick stopped _____________ (greet) Ms Harrison and then hurried off to catch the bus. 2.Contrary to what Mrs Reid thought, Mr Reid did not forget _____________ (buy) her a birthday present. 3.Of course, I regret _____________ (not / study) hard when I was at school! 4.My mum will go on _____________ (talk) for hours about how untidy my brother and I are. 5.Will you remember _____________ (buy) the tickets for tomorrow’s concert?
Unit 7 Complete the following sentences by using the - ing form or the full infinitive of the verbs in brackets. 1.Patrick stopped _____________ (greet) Ms Harrison and then hurried off to catch the bus. 2.Contrary to what Mrs Reid thought, Mr Reid did not forget _____________ (buy) her a birthday present. 3.Of course, I regret _____________ (not / study) hard when I was at school! 4.My mum will go on _____________ (talk) for hours about how untidy my brother and I are. 5.Will you remember _____________ (buy) the tickets for tomorrow’s concert? to greet to buy not studying talking to buy
Unit 7 Here is an article for you to translate into English. Who will do the translation job? Here you is the subject of the action to translate, for is usually used to introduce the subject of an infinitive phrase.
Unit 7 I found it easier to give a free talk because I can never learn anything by heart. Infinitive phrase “to give a …” serves as the postponed object of the verb find. It is called introductory it. easier is the object complement.
Unit 7 They are talking about having a bicycle race again. -ing participle used as the object of a preposition.
Unit 7 A: Have you booked two tickets for the ballet? B: No, I don’t remember doing it. Did you ask me to? A: Of course I did. I asked you last Friday. B: I am sorry I forget. I do apologize for not remembering it / I’m sorry to have forgotten it. I’ll try to remember / not to forget to do whatever you ask me (to) next time Language Structure Practice 1-A : Inquiring about a previous request & apologizing
Unit 7 A: Have you ever sailed on the Changjiang River? B: Yes, I have. (I had a boat trip on the Changjiang River two months ago.) A: How was it? B: (Just fantastic! Just delightful! / lovely! / Very pleasant! / interesting!) I’ll never forget seeing the Three Gorges. Language Structure Practice 1-B : Inquiring about someone’s experience & expressing pleasure
Unit 7 A: What was Zhang doing when you called on him last? B: He was reading the newspaper. A: What did he do when he saw you? B: He stopped reading the newspaper and spoke to me. He stopped to speak to me. Language Structure Practice 1-C : Asking for and giving information
Unit 7 A: Is there anything for me to do? B: (Yes.) Here’s an article for you to translate into English. A: How much time am I allowed to do it? B: A week. I think it’s easy enough for you to finish it in a week. Practice 2 : Asking about an assignment Language Structure
Unit 7 A: Which do you think is easier, giving a recitation or giving a free talk? B: Giving a recitation, of course. What do you think? A: I find it easier to give a free talk because I can never learn anything by heart. B: (It’s just the opposite with me.) I find it difficult to give a free talk because I have few ideas. Practice 3 : Making comparison & Expressing one’s opinion Language Structure
Unit 7 A: They’re talking about having a bicycle race again. B: Are you certain they’ll have it this time? A: Well, I rather doubt it. // Well, I’m not sure. I don’t believe they will. / It’s unlikely that they will. B: What makes you think so? A: Because there is bound to be someone who will object to having a bicycle race. Practice 4 : Expressing uncertainty & seeking and making clarification Language Structure
Unit 7 The Western Frontier in the United States Dialogue I When people talk about the United States, what can you think of ? The United States is the most powerful country in the world nowadays. What do you think is the driving force that makes the country so powerful? Think it
Unit 7 The Western Frontier in the United States Dialogue I Pictures
Unit 7 The Western Frontier in the United States Dialogue I 1.Railroad 2.There is Gold! 3.Need for food and meat 4.New factories and industrials 5.Small towns 6.Transportation companies 7.Some people became labors. 8.Big mining company VOA T Now listen to several passages of a VOA report about how the gold drove for the development of western America. Try to give a right sequence of following events.
Unit 7 The Western Frontier in the United States Dialogue I 1.Railroad 2.There is Gold! 3.Need for food and meat 4.New factories and industrials 5.Small towns 6.Transportation companies 7.Some people became labors. 8.Big mining company VOA T Now listen to several passages of a VOA report about how the gold drove for the development of western America. Try to give a right sequence of following events. 2 7 5 8 6 4 3 1 T
Unit 7 Dialogue I 1.Why did so many people rush westward in America in the 19th century? 2.Was the life of the frontiersmen hard and risky? Why? 3.What kind of houses did the frontiersmen live in? 4.How do Americans today think of the early pioneers? 5.What’s your opinion about America’s westward rush in the 19th century? Questions Browse through the dialogue, try to answer following questions. The Western Frontier in the United States
Unit 7 Dialogue I Please read the dialogue loudly with feeling and expression. Read The Western Frontier in the United States
Unit 7 Dialogue I Try to retell the content of the dialogue, following cues may help you. B, an American student, tells A about the westward movement of the U.S. frontiersmen. 1.Americans have always been attracted by the life of the frontiersmen. 2.B’s Great-great-grandfather. 3.The trip the pioneers had 4.Their life Retell The Western Frontier in the United States
Unit 7 Language Points the Westward Movement 北美独立战争到南北战争爆发前后向北美大陆西部移民拓殖扩 张、掠夺印第安人土地的运动。 18 世纪末至 19 世纪末的美国西进 运动是美国国内的一次大规模移民拓殖运动，是美国人对西部 的开发过程，也是美国城市化、工业化和美利坚民族大融合的 过程。这场西进运动对美国的经济、政治和社会都产生了重大 而深远的影响。 “ 直到目前为止，一部美国史在很大程度上可说 是对于西部的拓殖史 ” 。西进运动彻底改变了美国的面貌：大片 荒地被开垦出来，大批的资本主义农场建立起来，西部农业的 发展为工业的发展提供了大量的粮食、原料、出口产品和国内 市场；使美国的劳动力布局有所改变：促进了国内统一大市场 的形成，东西部互补性贸易迅速发展；西部资源的开发和利用 还满足了工业发展的需要，交通运输业也飞速发展 …… 美国的西 进运动激发了美国人的创造力和经济活力，提高了美国的综合 国力和国际地位，对美国整个国民经济的起飞具有重要的意义。 1 Dialogue I
Unit 7 Language Points Can you tell me more about the American western frontier 2 Dialogue I 1.[countable] the border of a country e.g. Troops established a road block on the frontier. 2.an area where people have never lived before, that not much is known about, especially in the western US before the 20th century e.g. a novel about a family's struggle on the American frontier space, 3. An undeveloped area or field for discovery or research the frontiers of knowledge/physics etc
Unit 7 Language Points I used to be enthralled by what my grandmother.. to make someone very interested and excited, so that they listen or watch something very carefully be enthralled by/ with somebody/ something e.g. The children were enthralled by the story she was telling 3 Dialogue I
Unit 7 Language Points Her accounts must be authentic. 4 Dialogue I account ① a written or spoken description that says what happens in an event or process e.g. This gives a first-hand account of the war. ② an arrangement in which a bank keeps your money safe so that you can pay more in or take money out e.g. My salary is paid directly into my bank account.
Unit 7 Language Points Her accounts must be authentic. 4 Dialogue I authentic ① done or made in the traditional or original way [synonym] genuine e.g. authentic French food ② a painting, document, book etc that is authentic has been proved to be by a particular person e.g. an authentic work by Picasso ③ based on facts e.g. an authentic account
Unit 7 Language Points He felt an urge to go west and seek his fortune. 5 Dialogue I [noun] a strong wish or need [synonym] desire e.g. He could no longer resist the urge to go and see his wife. Suddenly she had an overwhelming urge to be with her son. [verb] to strongly suggest that someone does something e.g. The charity urged quick action. urge somebody to do something e.g. I got a note from Moira urging me to get in touch. urge that e.g. He urged that a meeting should be held by December.
Unit 7 Language Points They had to crawl in and out of the cabin 6 1. to move along on your hands and knees with your body close to the ground crawl along/across e.g. The baby crawled across the floor. 2. if an insect crawls, it moves using its legs crawl over/up etc e.g. There's a bug crawling up your leg. 3. to get into or out of bed slowly because you are very tired crawl into/out of bed e.g. We crawled into bed at 2 am. 4.if a vehicle crawls, it moves forward very slowly crawl by/along etc e.g. The traffic was crawling along. Dialogue I
Unit 7 Language Points They stuffed the hole with a large rock to … 7 1. to push or put something into a small space, especially in a quick careless way [synonym] shove stuff something into/in/up something e.g. She stuffed two more sweaters into her bag. 2.to fill something until it is full Volunteers were busy stuffing envelopes. be stuffed with something e.g. a pillow stuffed with feathers [as noun] things, activities, works, art e.g. How do you think you're going to fit all that stuff into the car? I felt sorry for the ones who had to eat the awful stuff. He does mountain biking and skiing and stuff like that. He did some great stuff in his early films. Dialogue I
Unit 7 Language Points They had been attracted by the wide stretches of land… 8 1. an area of land or water, especially one that is long and narrow e.g. a beautiful stretch of countryside 2. a continuous period of time e.g. a stretch of three weeks without sunshine She doesn't leave the house for long stretches of time. 3. the action of stretching a part of your body out to its full length, or a particular way of doing this e.g. The ski instructor showed us some special stretches. Dialogue I
Unit 7 Language Points And they prayed for a lucky strike. 9 pray e.g. Let us pray for peace. Martha prayed to God for help. Paul was praying that no one had noticed his absence. I hope and pray that this is a misunderstanding. We're praying for good weather tomorrow. strike 1. Not working e.g. a six-week strike by railway workers 2. Attack e.g. a six-week strike by railway workers 3. the discovery of something valuable under the ground e.g. an oil strike 4. used in bowling and baseball Dialogue I
Unit 7 Language Points Those people were really fearless and self-reliant. 10 e.g. Our aim is to teach our son to become an independent, self-reliant adult. [noun] self-reliance reliant dependent on someone or something reliant on/upon e.g. Most companies are now reliant on computer technology. Dialogue I
Unit 7 Language Points What an incredible pioneering spirit they had! 11 [synonym] unbelievable 1. extremely good, large, or great e.g. The view is just incredible. There was blood everywhere and the pain was incredible. 2. too strange to be believed or very difficult to believe e.g. It‘s incredible how much Tom has changed since he met Sally. I find it almost incredible that no-one noticed these errors. Dialogue I
Unit 7 Dialogue I Open Up the Great Northwest Role-Play The Western Frontier in the United States
Unit 7 Be eager / keen / anxious / desperate to.. Be dying / longing to Be keen on Count the days till In-laws To do justice to the Lakes Desire, Longing, Excitement and Anticipation Dialogue II Key-point
Unit 7 Two weeks isn’t really long enough though, to do justice to the Lakes. 1. System of judgment e.g. The killers will be brought to justice (=caught and punished). 2. fairness [opposite] injustice e.g. Children have a strong sense of justice. 3. the quality of being right and deserving fair treatment e.g. No one doubts the justice of our cause. 4. do justice to somebody/something/ also do somebody/something justice to treat or represent someone or something good, beautiful etc in a way that is as good as they deserve e.g. No words can do justice to the experience.
Unit 7 horse 马 mare 母马 mule 骡 ass, donkey 驴 ox 牛 buffalo 水牛 bull 公牛 cow 母牛 pig, swine 猪 sheep 羊 goat 山羊 lamb 羊羔 zebra 斑马 deer 鹿 giraffe 长颈鹿 camel 骆驼 elephant 象 rhinoceros 犀牛 hippopotamus 河马 lion 狮 panther, puma 美洲豹 leopard 豹 tiger 虎 dog 狗 fox 狐 wolf 狼 bear 熊 rabbit 兔子 monkey 猴子 chimpanzee 黑猩猩 gorilla 大猩猩 anteater 食蚁兽 kangaroo 袋鼠 koala 考拉, 树袋熊 whale 鲸 dolphin 海豚 seal 海豹 eagle 鹰 cock 公鸡 hen 母鸡 chicken 鸡, 雏鸡 turkey 火鸡 peacock 孔雀 duck 鸭 goose 鹅 swan 天鹅 dove 鸽 pigeon 野鸽 ostrich 鸵鸟 gull, seagull 海鸥 parrot 鹦鹉 cuckoo 杜鹃, 布谷鸟 crow 乌鸦 magpie 喜鹊 swallow 燕子 sparrow 麻雀 lark 百鸟, 云雀 swift 褐雨燕 penguin 企鹅 owl 枭, 猫头鹰 rat 鼠 bat 蝙蝠 Reading I Words-construct Intelligence in Animals Can you name some common animals?
Unit 7 Intelligence in Animals Reading I 1.What is the commonest way used to learn about the stages of intelligence in animals? 2.Do animals learn from their mistakes? 3.Why is the maze an inadequate test for measuring intelligence in mammals? 4.Can animals think about something not around them? 5.How can you tell that certain abilities that animals possess are instinct and certain other abilities are instances of intelligence? 6.What evidence show that monkeys can reason? 7.Do you believe that certain species of animals can cope with abstract ideas? Questions
Unit 7 Language Points The relative intellectual levels of creatures at … relating to the ability to understand things and think intelligently e.g. intellectual development / ability / activity a job that requires considerable intellectual effort 智力的，有智力的 [adv] intellectually Intelligent 聪明的，伶俐的 Intelligence 智力，聪明 1 Reading I
Unit 7 Language Points a example of maze 2 Reading I
Unit 7 Language Points a example of nest 3 Reading I
Unit 7 Language Points As one moves up the evolutionary scale moves up to get a better job in a company, or change to a more advanced group, higher rank, or higher level e.g. To move up, you'll need the right training. Share prices moved up this month. He was moving up the ladder (=getting higher and higher) scale a whole range of different types of people or things, from the lowest level to the highest e.g. She gradually made her way up the social scale. 刻度, 衡量, 比例, 数值范围, 比例尺, 天平, 等级 4 Reading I
Unit 7 Language Points More subtle test of mental ability is to see... 1. not easy to notice or understand unless you pay careful attention [opposite] obvious e.g. The pictures are similar, but there are subtle differences between them. The warning signs of the disease are so subtle that they are often ignored. 2. behaving in a skilful and clever way, especially using indirect methods or language to hide what you are trying to do e.g. I think we need a more subtle approach. a subtle plan 5 Reading I
Unit 7 Language Points When the preliminary lesson has been learnt. [adj] happening before something that is more important, often in order to prepare for it e.g. the preliminary stages of the competition [noun] something that is said or done first, to introduce or prepare for something else e.g. Pilot studies are a useful preliminary to large research projects. 6 Reading I
Unit 7 Language Points …can pace up and down until it is released... to walk first in one direction and then in another many times, especially because you are nervous e.g. I found Mark at the hospital, pacing restlessly up and down. [as noun] e.g. The pace of change in our lives is becoming faster and faster. Here in Bermuda, the pace of life is very slow. He quickened his pace, longing to be home. Traffic slowed to a walking pace. He took a pace towards the door. 7 Reading I
Unit 7 Language Points Birds can perform marvels of aerobatics. marvel something or someone that is extremely useful or skilful [synonym] miracle, wonder e.g. an engineering marvel I don't know how he did it - he's an absolute marvel! aerobatics 特技飞行 8 Reading I
Unit 7 Language Points The abilities which they do possess are built-in instincts derived from their genetic inheritance. 9 Reading I derive 1. to get something, especially an advantage or a pleasant feeling, from something e.g. Medically, we will derive great benefit from this technique. Many students derived enormous satisfaction from the course. 2. to develop or come from something else e.g. This word is derived from Latin. inheritance e.g. Lucinda has to fight for her life and her inheritance in this novel. Our genetic inheritance cannot be changed. ideas that have become part of our cultural inheritance
Unit 7 Language Points It involves piling up boxes to stand on. 10 Reading I pile up 1. to increase in quantity or amount, in a way that is difficult to manage e.g. It wasn't long before the debts were piling up. The traffic starts piling up around this time. The work has a tendency to pile up if I'm not careful. 2. pile something up tiny peanuts piled up in a dish
Unit 7 Language Points The animal looked about it and sized up the problem. 11 Reading I size something / somebody up to look at or consider a person or situation and make a judgment about them e.g. It only took a few seconds for her to size up the situation.
Unit 7 Language Points It cannot grasp that any water... 12 Reading I 1. to take and hold something firmly [synonym] grip e.g. I grasped his arm firmly and led him away. Alan grasped the handle and pulled it. 2. to completely understand a fact or an idea, especially a complicated one e.g. At that time, we did not fully grasp the significance of what had happened. Some people find the idea of relativity difficult to grasp. A short opening paragraph enables the reader to quickly grasp what the article is about. 3. grasp an opportunity e.g. She is ready to grasp any opportunity to expand the business
Unit 7 Language Points Water quenches fire … 13 Reading I [formal] 1. quench your thirst e.g. We stopped at a small bar to quench our thirst. 2. quench a fire/flames [synonym] extinguish e.g. The fireman spent 3 hours quenching the fire.
Unit 7 How Animals Keep Warm Reading II 1.What does the word “hibernation” mean? Give examples? 2.How do the non-hibernating animals keep warm in winter? Skimming Questions
Unit 7 Guided Writing Note cancelling an appointment
Unit 7 How to Look at Westernization Interaction Activities
Unit 7 Listening Practice Spelling Dictation A Dictation B Listening Comprehension
Unit 7 Spelling pioneerincrediblecommunitycrawl intelligencepsychologistroutineevolution inadequatepreliminaryfierceunparalleled
Unit 7 What is communication? The dictionary defines it: “giving or exchanging information by speaking or writing.” Animals can’t read or write or speak a human language but they do communicate. Animals exchange information about food, about territory, about danger and safety. They express fear, hunger, anger, pleasure and recognition. Animal messages are not always expressed in sounds. Animals mark their territory in different ways. The scratches on the trees or the smell that remains on the stones tell other animals that the territory is occupied. Some animals communicate by touching. Lions, tigers, and other members of the cat family show friendliness by rubbing their heads or necks together. Color is sometimes very important in animal communication. Some kinds of fish change color when they are angry or frightened. A peacock displays the beautifully colored feathers in his tail when he wants to attract a female. The next time you are walking in a forest or a field, look and listen for animal signals. Dictation A
Unit 7 Training a dog to be a watchdog often produces unexpected results. Some dogs quickly learn the difference between unwanted people and friends. This is because their masters welcome friends and invite them into their houses. However, some dogs will always attack the postman who comes to deliver letters. One explanation for this behavior is that, although the postman comes to the house often, he never enters the house. Therefore, the dog thinks the postman is someone who is not wanted, but keeps coming back anyway. Masters of dogs who attack postmen can easily show the dog that the postman is a friend and that the dog does not need to treat him as an unwanted person. A dog is quite ready to do what his master wishes. And a dog is always happy when he is praised for understanding correctly. Dictation B
Unit 7 True or False? 1.A pigeon is a rare bird which is able to find its way home from faraway place. 2.Nowadays homing pigeons are raised for postal service. 3.People train the young pigeons to find their way home by gradually increasing the distance they fly. 4.In a race, a rubber ring is placed on each participating pigeon’s leg to mark the time. 5.Pigeon racing is only popular in Belgium. 6.Airline pilots have various aids to guide them on their journey. 7.Scientists have found out how pigeons find their way home but they keep it as a secret. 8.It’s certain that pigeons, like airline pilots, have various aids to guide them in their long-distance flights. Listening Comprehension F T F T F F T F
Unit 7 1. A pigeon is a common bird which is able to find its way home from faraway place. 2. Nowadays homing pigeons are raised for sport. 5. Pigeon racing is very popular in Europe, America and Australia. 7. Scientists still aren’t sure how pigeons find their way home. 8. It only seems likely that pigeons use a number of methods to guide them on their long-distance journeys. Listening Comprehension