3 Mission“We, the associates of Buckman Laboratories, will excel in providing measurable, cost-effective improvements in output and quality for our customers by delivering customer-specific services and products, and the creative application of knowledge”
4 Flame Retardant Additives for Coatings, Plastics, and Adhesives Buckman LaboratoriesFlame Retardant Additives for Coatings, Plastics, and Adhesives
5 Definition of FIREFire is one of the 4 Elements: EARTH, AIR, FIRE and WATER.By Webster, Fire is defined as:A Rapid, persistent chemical reaction that releases heat and light, esp. the exothermic combustion of a combustible substance with oxygen.
10 Introduction Almost anything will burn. The objective of flame retarding is to increase the resistance of a product to ignition and to reduce flame spread. Thus, the use of a flame retardant may prevent a small fire from becoming a major catastrophe.
11 Introduction (con't.)A National Bureau of Standards (U.S.) study comparing fire retarded and non-fire retarded products concluded that fire retardant additives decreased the overall fire hazard of their host products.
12 FIRE StatisticsUS has one of the highest fire death rates in the industrialized worldMore than 2 million fires reported each year / cost of 8.1 billion dollarsWhere fires occur in the home:Kitchen 29%Bedroom 13%Living Room/Den 8%Chimney 8%Laundry Area 4%Top causes of residential fires:Careless SmokingArsonAlternative heatersCooking
13 Determining the Fire Hazard of a Product Factors needed to be considered in determining the fire hazard of a product areIgnitabilityFlammabilityHeat released when burnedHeat release rateSmoke obscurationToxicity of the smoke generated
14 Flame Retardant Market The overall market for flame retardant chemicals is controlled by government regulations, insurance underwriters, national or local building codes, special regulations and compliance with existing and anticipated standards.Without these regulatory actions or mandatory standards, flame retardant chemicals probably would not be used to an appreciable extent.
15 Flame Retardant Market (con't.) Fire Retardant additives inPlastics %Adhesives 0.2%Paints and Coatings 4.8%Other %
16 Desired Properties of a Flame Retardant High Decomposition TemperatureLow volatilityNon-blooming or plate-outMinimal effect on final physical propertiesLow toxicity(no single additive meets all these requirements)
17 3 Things are Needed to Sustain FIRE FlameOxygenFuel
20 Mechanisms of Flame Retardants EndothermicityChar formerVapor phase
21 ENDOTHERMICITY Mode of action - heat absorber Examples Primarily utilize evaporative cooling provided by chemically bound water and diluting the oxygen in the gas-phase reactionExamplesAlumina trihydrate and magnesium hydroxideThey are relatively inefficientHigh use levels required comprimise products physical properties
22 CHAR FORMER Mode of action - Char former Examples As the material is broken down a char or carbon layer is formed. This char acts as a physical barrier excluding oxygen and fuel for the fire.ExamplesBarium/Calcium metaborates, phosphorus compounds, zinc borate. These products work best with a halogen donor of some sort (chlorinated resin, chlorinated wax, other synergistic flame retardant)
23 VAPOR PHASE Mode of action - Chemically inhibit flame Inexpensive Free radicals generated during combustion are scavenged by halogens (which compete with oxygen - no oxygen, no flame) stopping the chain reaction of combustion.InexpensiveExamplesHalogenated materials (deca-brome type, chlorinated paraffin wax, phosphate esters, antimony tri and pentoxide)
24 Major US Producers of Flame Retardant Chemicals Product Company TradenameAlumina Trihydrate Alcoa FlameGaurd LaRoche Chemical Reynolds Metals SolemAntimony Oxide AlbermarleAnzon Cookson Laurel Fireshield, ThermogaurdBoron Compounds Buckman Laboratories Flamebloc Climax US Borax FirebrakeBrominated Phosphates Ameribrom / Dead Sea Bromine Albermarle Saytex Ferro Great Lakes Chemical Firemaster, Smokebloc FMCChlorinated Cmpds Ferro Dover Chemical Occidental PearsallChlorinated Phosphates Akzo Albright and WilsonMolybdenum Cmpds AMAX Sherwin WilliamPhosphate Esters Akzo Monsanto
25 Characteristics of Other Most Widely Used FR’s Antimony Tri/Pentoxide (Sb2O3)-ProsInexpensive Commodity (large price swings $1 - $3)Fine particle sizeTrack Record in many materials and applicationsConsMay Cause “Antimony Measles” in workersHalogen needed for optimal performanceHigh loading levels, possibly decreased physical propertiesHigher product densityMost supply is imported (commodity, large price swings)See Technical Data Sheet Example
26 Characteristics of Other Most Widely Used FR’s Zinc Borate (ZnBO3) -ProsInexpensiveSimilar RI of most thermoplastics (lower pigment levels)Track Record in many materials and applicationsConsHigh loading levels, possibly decreasing final physical propertiesHalogen needed for optimal performanceHigh product densityWater of hydration
27 Characteristics of Other Most Widely Used FR’s Brominated Flame Retardant (BFR's) -ProsCost EffectiveTrack Record in many materials and applicationsConsHalogen (Bromine)Brominated materials under scrutiny in Europe, US may followNot readily biodegradable - environmental issues
28 Primary Industries Where Flame Retardants are Used Wire and cable (electronic and other)AppliancesTextilesCoatingsAdhesivesCarpet BackingOther
29 Successes with Flamebloc Products in Plastics/Coatings PVC (wire and jacketing)Chlorinated Polyethylene (riser cable)Nylon other engineering resins (part of FR package)Polyester PultrusionCoatings / Intumesent coatings
30 Benefits of Flamebloc Flame Retardants/Smoke Suppressants (con’t) Flame Retardant / Smoke SuppressorData has shown that the smoke suppressant effectiveness can be as great as 50% or better (see data)Four particle sizes to choose fromThe theory is that you will get better dispersion in your polymer with a smaller particle size and more uniform distribution curve. Also, the increased surface area helps create more char.
31 Benefits of Flamebloc Flame Retardants/Smoke Suppressants (con’t) Does not noticeably degrade final physical properties of most finished productsHeat Stabilization EffectUnlike products like Zinc Borate, that significantly degrade a polymer’s final physical properties, the Barium and Calcium Metaborates act as stabilizers and do not degrade the polymer’s final properties to that degreeSafer product (MSDS) than many of its competitors
32 Benefits of Flamebloc Flame Retardants/Smoke Suppressants (con’t) Reduced toxic smoke emissions and total smokeThe Flamebloc products keep the Peak Rate of Heat Release and Total Heat Release (cone calorimeter) low thus creating less combustibles and less smoke. Also the byproducts of BMB and CMB are less toxic than some of its counterparts.Non-halogen
33 Test MethodsThere are many different tests for determining the degree of flame retardancy of materials.The correlation of performance between test methods is poor. Therefore, a system that passes one test, might not pass or may need modification in order to pass a different test.Following is a list of some of the more common test.
34 Measuring Flammability/Smoke The two most popular laboratory methods of measuring flammability areUL -94Limited Oxygen TestsWhile such small scale tests are useful for comparative studies, they do not predict the level of hazard in an actual room fire.
35 Measuring Flammability/Smoke UL-94 The UL-94 requirements cover tests for flammability of plastic materials used to manufacture parts in devices and appliances. They are intended to provide an indication of a resin’s flammability , and therefore acceptability for a particular application.Tests:Horizontal Burning Test; 94HB 20MMVertical Burning Test; 94V-0, 94V-1, or 94V-2
39 Measuring Flammability/Smoke UL-94 (con't) Tests:Horizontal Burning Test; 94HB20 MW Vertical Burning Test; 94V-0, 94V-1, or 94V-2500 MW Vertical Burning Test; 94-5VA or 94-5VBThin Material Vertical Burning Test; 94VTM-0, or 94VTM-2…Horizontal Burning Foamed Materials Test; 934HBF, 94HBF-1, or 94HBF-2
40 Measuring Flammability/Smoke Oxygen Index Oxygen index is the consumption of oxygen of a fire system related to a numerical value. The higher the value the better the flame retardant system may be.Buckman Laboratories has this apparatus available in the lab.
41 Measuring Flammability/Smoke Oxygen Index (con't)
42 Measuring Flammability/Smoke (con’t) Methods for measuring smokeCone colorimeterUL Steiner Tunnel Test (larger scale)Although toxic gases are the major cause of fire deaths, it has been suggested that heat release rate is the single most important variable in characterizing flammability.
43 Measuring Flammability/Smoke Cone Calorimeter The cone calorimeter is an apparatus that measures the rate of heat release using the ‘oxygen consumption principle’, ignitability and smoke production.
44 Measuring Flammability/Smoke UL Steiner Tunnel Test This test analyzes the smoke produced by the burning of a material.
45 Flame Retardant Chemicals Market Projected Growth is 4% per year over the next five yearsFlame retardants in the electronics market segment will grow the fastest at about 7.5%
46 Current and Future Trends Europe has moved to ban or curtail the use of brominated diphenyl oxide flame retardants because of the potential formation of highly toxic brominated furans and dioxins during combustion.Reformulation to replace halogenated flame retardants with non-halogenated flame retardants.
47 Current and Future Trends (con’t) New co-polymerization of engineering thermoplasticsMore rigid flame retardant requirements have been established for the upholstered furniture industryBetter flame and smoke reduction using non-halogen chemistry in the polyolefin arena
48 Current and Future Trends (con’t) Flame retardant blends (synergism's between different FR mechanism products)i.e. Flamebloc products and antimony oxide
49 Data ReviewBuckman Laboratories Cone Calorimeter Data on Plenum Wire and Cable Formulation
57 Summary Review of DataFlamebloc 428/Antimony and the Busan 11-M1/Antimony combination had:1. Longer times to sustained ignition 2. Lower Heat Release Rates 3. Lower Total Heat Released 4. Lower Total Smoke Generation 5. Better part physical propertiesthan the control or competitive materials (zinc borate or antimony)All the above contribute to superior performance for Buckman products in plenum cable applications.
59 Buckman Laboratory Products for Flame and Smoke Suppression This is a strategic business area for BUCKMAN LABORATORIES, Inc. We are committed to keeping our customers on the cutting edge of FR and SS with new products and technologies.
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