Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Tyne foundry As depicted here by Kathe Kollwitz, conditions on farms were often bad enough to drive many people to go to the cities to find work.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Tyne foundry As depicted here by Kathe Kollwitz, conditions on farms were often bad enough to drive many people to go to the cities to find work."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 The Tyne foundry

3 As depicted here by Kathe Kollwitz, conditions on farms were often bad enough to drive many people to go to the cities to find work in the factories

4 Women were preferred as employees in the textile industry because they had nimbler fingers and were easier to exploit.

5 Oyster shuckers whose shift lasted from 3:30AM to 5:30PM

6

7

8

9 Glass factory workers

10 A looper in a textile mill

11 A 10 year old tobacco picker

12 Glass factory worker (1911) who works the day shift 1 week & night shift the next

13 Children supplementing their meager diet with scraps from an animal trough

14 Children carrying clay for a brickyard Children supplementing their meager diet with scraps from an animal trough

15 Death of a young girl in a factory “ A girl named Mary Richards, who was thought remarkably handsome when she left the workhouse, and, who was not quite ten years of age, attended a drawing frame, below which, and about a foot from the floor, was a horizontal shaft, by which the frames above were turned. It happened one evening, when her apron was caught by the shaft. In an instant the poor girl was drawn by an irresistible force and dashed on the floor. She uttered the most heart-rending shrieks! Blincoe ran towards her, an agonized and helpless beholder of a scene of horror. He saw her whirled round and round with the shaft - he heard the bones of her arms, legs, thighs, etc. successively snap asunder, crushed, seemingly, to atoms, as the machinery whirled her round, and drew tighter and tighter her body within the works, her blood was scattered over the frame and streamed upon the floor, her head appeared dashed to pieces - at last, her mangled body was jammed in so fast, between the shafts and the floor, that the water being low and the wheels off the gear, it stopped the main shaft. When she was extricated, every bone was found broken - her head dreadfully crushed. She was carried off quite lifeless.”

16 Pennsylvania coal breaker. The dust at times would be so thick one could hardly see

17 Newsies (1910)

18 Children being sent to work in a cotton mill (c.1840)

19 An older child, known as a “getter”, picks out coal in the mines

20 Younger children, the ones in back known as “thrusters”, push and pull coal through a mine shaft only 20 inches high (above), while an even younger trapper about 6 years old, opens a blast door for a “hurrier” (below). Such doors were meant to contain coal dust explosions.

21 Glass worker on the night shift (1908) A commission in Nottingham in 1850 reported that children were “dragged from their squalid beds at 2, 3, or 4 o’clock in the morning and compelled to work for bare subsistence until 10, 11, or 12 at night, their limbs wearing away, their frames dwindling, their faces whitening and their humanity absolutely sinking into a stone-like torpor, utterly horrible to contemplate.” 11 year old doffer (one who replaces empty bobbins of thread)

22 Homeless children

23 "It was a town of red brick, or of brick that would have been red if the smoke and ashes had allowed it; but as matters stood it was a town of unnatural red and black like the painted face over which interminable serpents of smoke trailed themselves for ever and ever, and never got uncoiled. It had a black canal in it, and a river that ran purple with ill-smelling dye, and vast piles of buildings full of windows where there was rattling and a trembling all day long, and where the piston of the steam-engine worked monotonously up and down like the head of an elephant in a state of melancholy madness. It contained several large streets all very like one another, and many small streets still more like one another, inhabited by people equally like one another, who all went in and out at the same hours, with the same sound upon the same pavements, to do the same work, and to whom every day was the same as yesterday and tomorrow, and every year the counterpart of the last and the next...

24 "You saw nothing in Coketown but what was severely workful. If the members of a religious persuasion built a chapel there-- as the members of eighteen religious persuasions had done-- they made it a pious warehouse of red brick, with sometimes (but this is only in highly ornamental examples) a bell in a birdcage on the top of it.... All the public inscriptions in the town were painted alike, in severe characters of black and white. The jail might have been the infirmary, the infirmary might have been the jail, the town-hall might have been either, or both, or anything else, for anything that appeared to the contrary in the graces of their construction. Fact, fact, fact, everywhere in the immaterial. The M'Choakumchild school was all fact, and the school of design was all fact, and the relations between master and man were all fact, and everything was fact between the lying-in hospital and the cemetery, and what you couldn't state in figures, or show to be purchaseable in the cheapest market and saleable in the dearest, was not, and never should be, world without end. Amen."--From Hard Times by Charles Dickens

25 Children crippled by factory work

26 Right and left a multitude of covered passages lead from the main street into numerous courts, and he who turns in thither gets into a filth and disgusting grime, the equal of which is not to be found - especially in the courts which lead down to the Irk, and which contain unqualifiedly the most horrible dwellings which I have yet beheld. In one of these courts there stands directly at the entrance, at the end of the covered passage, a privy without a door, so dirty that the inhabitants can pass into and out of the court only by passing through foul pools of stagnant urine and excrement. This is the first court on the Irk above Ducie Bridge - in case any one should care to look into it. Below it on the river there are several tanneries, which fill the whole neighbourhood with the stench of animal putrefaction. Below Ducie Bridge the only entrance to most of the houses is by means of narrow, dirty stairs and over heaps of refuse and filth.

27 A homeless woman in London, 1875

28 The first court below Ducie Bridge, known as Allen's Court, was in such a state at the time of the cholera that the sanitary police ordered it evacuated, swept, and disinfected with chloride of lime... At the bottom flows, or rather stagnates, the Irk, a narrow, coal- black, foul-smelling stream, full of debris and refuse, which it deposits on the shallower right bank.

29 Angry workers attack a factory owner’s home

30 “In dry weather, a long string of the most disgusting, blackish-green, slime pools are left standing on this bank, from the depths of which bubbles of miasmatic gas constantly arise and give forth a stench unendurable even on the bridge forty or fifty feet above the surface of the stream. But besides this, the stream itself is checked every few paces by high weirs, behind which slime and refuse accumulate and rot in thick masses. Above the bridge are tanneries, bone mills, and gasworks, from which all drains and refuse find their way into the Irk, which receives further the contents of all the neighbouring sewers and privies. It may be easily imagined, therefore, what sort of residue the stream deposits. Below the bridge you look upon the piles of debris, the refuse, filth, and offal from the courts on the steep left bank; here each house is packed close behind its neighbour and a piece of each is visible, all black, smoky, crumbling, ancient, with broken panes and window frames...

31 Workers marching to protest working conditions

32 “Above Ducie Bridge, the left bank grows more flat and the right bank steeper, but the condition of the dwellings on both banks grows worse rather than better. He who turns to the left here from the main street, Long Millgate, is lost; he wanders from one court to another, turns countless corners, passes nothing but narrow, filthy nooks and alleys, until after a few minutes he has lost all clue, and knows not whither to turn. Everywhere half or wholly ruined buildings, some of them actually uninhabited, which means a great deal here; rarely a wooden or stone floor to be seen in the houses, almost uniformly broken, ill-fitting windows and doors, and a state of filth! Everywhere heaps of debris, refuse, and offal; standing pools for gutters, and a stench which alone would make it impossible for a human being in any degree civilised to live in such a district…

33

34 Immediately under the railway bridge there stands a court, the filth and horrors of which surpass all the others by far, just because it was hitherto so shut off, so secluded that the way to it could not be found without a good deal of trouble... Passing along a rough bank, among stakes and washing-lines, one penetrates into this chaos of small one- storied, one-roomed huts, in most of which there is no artificial floor; kitchen, living and sleeping-room all in one. In such a hole, scarcely five feet long by six broad, I found two beds - and such bedsteads and beds! - which, with a staircase and chimney-place, exactly filled the room. In several others I found absolutely nothing, while the door stood open, and the inhabitants leaned against it. Everywhere before the doors refuse and offal; that any sort of pavement lay underneath could not be seen but only felt, here and there, with the feet. This whole collection of cattle-sheds for human beings was surrounded on two sides by houses and a factory, and on the third by the river, and besides the narrow stair up the bank, a narrow doorway alone led out into another almost equally ill-built, ill-kept labyrinth of dwellings....

35 “... Here, as in most of the working-men's quarters of Manchester, the pork-raisers rent the courts and build pig-pens in them. In almost every court one or even several such pens may be found, into which the inhabitants of the court throw all refuse and offal, whence the swine grow fat; and the atmosphere, confined on all four sides, is utterly corrupted by putrefying animal and vegetable substances....

36 “Such is the Old Town of Manchester, and on re-reading my description, I am forced to admit that instead of being exaggerated, it is far from black enough to convey a true impression of the filth, ruin, and uninhabitableness, the defiance of all considerations of cleanliness, ventilation, and health which characterise the construction of this single district, containing at least twenty to thirty thousand inhabitants. And such a district exists in the heart of the second city of England, the first manufacturing city of the world. If any one wishes to see in how little space a human being can move, how little air - and such air! - he can breathe, how little of civilisation he may share and yet live, it is only necessary to travel hither. True, this is the Old Town, and the people of Manchester emphasise the fact whenever any one mentions to them the frightful condition of this Hell upon Earth; but what does that prove? Everything which here arouses horror and indignation is of recent origin, belongs to the industrial epoch.” From Friedrich Engels, The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844 (London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1892), pp. 45,

37 The polluted skies of Birmingham’s “Black Country”

38 It was children like these in the streets of London who inspired Dickens’ Oliver Twist.

39 Workers conspiring in the dark corner of some pub

40 A cartoon bitterly satirizing the disparity in living conditions for rich & poor

41 The artist Kathe Kollwitz captured much of the heartache of life for the working classes in her sketches. Here, a man grieves the death of his young wife

42 Parents agonize over a sick child. 94% of working class deaths came from infectious diseases

43 The rage of a working class woman is captured by the artist, Kathe Kollwitz

44 “Sixteen tons and what do you get? Another day older and deeper in debt. St Peter don’t you call me ‘cause I can’t go I owe my soul to the company store.”--Miners’ song

45

46 FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Rising standard of living by 1900: Real wages double by 1900 Longer life expectancy Dramatic pop. growth Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs

47 A Industrial Revolution (FC.111) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

48 -Urban growth: Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Industrial Revolution (FC.111) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

49 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Industrial Revolution (FC.111) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

50 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Industrial Revolution (FC.111) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

51 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Industrial Revolution (FC.111) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

52 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Industrial Revolution (FC.111) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

53 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before? Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Industrial Revolution (FC.111) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

54 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Work separates fam’s from home & each other Industrial Revolution (FC.111) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

55 In an extended family, several generations plus other relatives live under one roof

56 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Work separates fam’s from home & each other Industrial Revolution (FC.111) -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: Q: And then? What replaced the extended family? FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

57 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Work separates fam’s from home & each other Industrial Revolution (FC.111) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

58 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Work separates fam’s from home & each other Industrial Revolution (FC.111) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

59 In an “extended nuclear” family, such as evolved after the Black Death in the 1300s, different generations of a family lived in separate homes. However, they typically still lived in the same community and could provide support to one another.

60 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Work separates fam’s from home & each other Industrial Revolution (FC.111) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

61 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Work separates fam’s from home & each other Industrial Revolution (FC.111) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear Places of living & work before and after?

62 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Work separates fam’s from home & each other Industrial Revolution (FC.111) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

63 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Work separates fam’s from home & each other Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

64 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Work separates fam’s from home & each other Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

65 In a nuclear family, such as developed during the industrial revolution, different branches of the same family typically moved to industrial cities where they often can still rely on some support from other family members and neighbors who all rented from the same landlord and saw themselves as part of the same struggle to survive. x x x x xx

66 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Work separates fam’s from home & each other Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

67 Norman Rockwell Roadblock,1949 Norman Rockwell’s paintings, although somewhat romanticized and nostalgic, captured the sense of community that still existed in mid 20th century cities

68 Norman Rockwell, Homecoming GI, 1945

69 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Work separates fam’s from home & each other Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

70 After World War II, a new phenomenon emerged: the suburbs. Nuclear families left the more community oriented environment of inner city apartment buildings for individual one-family homes, each owned by a separate family that drew distinct (property) lines, often with fences and hedges, between what belonged to them and their neighbors. As affluence & the size of family homes grew, so did the distance between & within families. Aggravating this was the automobile which replaced the shared experience of public transport with individuals each going their own way to their own destinations. This is where the sense of community really broke down. X

71 Levittown, Pa., 1959

72 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Work separates fam’s from home & each other Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

73

74 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Work separates fam’s from home & each other Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear Men’s & women’s roles before?

75 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Work separates fam’s from home & each other Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks Men’s & women’s roles after?

76 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Work separates fam’s from home & each other Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

77 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Before: Work & home = same place After: Work & home are separate Work Conditions Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

78 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Before: Work & home = same place After: Work & home are separate Work Conditions Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Before IR, at what rate did people work & what were they paid according to?

79 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Before: Work & home = same place After: Work & home are separate Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

80 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Before: Work & home = same place After: Work & home are separate Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

81 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Before: Work & home = same place After: Work & home are separate Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

82 The transition stage to the factory system: the cottage industry where people worked at home, but for a distant boss. However, many of the abuses of women & children commonly associated with the factory system also occurred at the family level in the cottage industry system.

83 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Before: Work & home = same place After: Work & home are separate Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids Impact of schools, competition from machines, & rising wages on child labor?

84 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Before: Work & home = same place After: Work & home are separate Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after 1870 Wages and job security?

85 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after 1870

86 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION In factory system, at what rate did people work & what were they paid according to?

87 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced -Factory system: work at mach's rate; paid/hr Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

88 The safety poster says: “The sky’s the limit on good ideas. Let’s hear yours”

89 However, the workers see: “THIS IS NOT YOU!”

90 This is the beautiful environment I worked in during the summers of

91 The Pit ***

92 The “bell-crusher” which breaks large rocks down to smaller ones before being sent on to be broken into finer grades of gravel.

93

94

95

96

97 Contrary to popular opinion, time does not fly when you’re working in a factory.

98 In fact, time seems to crawl, especially if a clock is placed right in front of you.

99 It doesn’t help if it has two minute hands….

100 Or is in decimal time with 10 hour days and 100 minute hours

101

102 One of the most pervasive aspects of industrial work is the safety poster.

103 Don’t get your head bashed up on the job. Be safe.

104 Don’t get your head caught in dangerous machinery. Be Safe. Don’t deprive your fellow workers of a FREE CHICKEN DINNER!

105 Watch where you’re driving when on the job. The fellow worker you run over & kill might cost the company a LOST TIME ACCIDENT!

106 Don’t play with electricity on the job and turn into a vampire,

107 Don’t play with chain saws on the job like hapless Harry does. Play with them alone and at home

108 This is Hapless Harry’s brain on drugs. Don’t get high on the job!

109 Don’t go hood-surfing on the job. Be safe. Get a free chicken dinner

110 Don’t fall to your death on the job. Be safe. Win a chicken dinner

111 Don’t catch on fire on the job. Be safe. Eat free chicken.

112 Your fellow workers may care about that free chicken dinner more than you thought. A lost time accident could hurt a lot more than you realize.

113 Don’t wear a chemical suit into a kiddie pool and frighten children.

114

115

116 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced -Factory system: work at mach's rate; paid/hr -Pay only good at company store “Sixteen tons and what do you get? Another day older and deeper in debt. St Peter don’t you call me ‘cause I can’t go I owe my soul to the company store.” --Miners’ song

117 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced -Factory system: work at mach's rate; paid/hr -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

118 -Urban growth: -Manchester 25k  303k; - Liverpool 80k  397k; - London 700K (1700)  7.3m. (1900) - # cities over 50k 3->31 Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced -Factory system: work at mach's rate; paid/hr -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

119 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced -Factory system: work at mach's rate; paid/hr -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common Kids replacing bobbins on machinery

120 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced -Factory system: work at mach's rate; paid/hr -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full

121 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced -Factory system: work at mach's rate; paid/hr -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines

122 Humphrey Davy (1778?- 1829) was a renown chemist who, among other things experimented with nitrous oxide. (After variouis “experiments” with it at several laughing gas parties, it would be used as the first anesthetic, a major breakthrough in the history of modern surgery.) Davy is also known for the Humphrey Lamp which used gauze to filter out combustible gases in coal mines, thus reducing the incidence of mine explosions. Besides saving coal miners’ lives, the Humphrey lamp also saved thousands of canaries’ lives, much to the chagrin of canary breeders.

123 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced -Factory system: work at mach's rate; paid/hr -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed

124 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Family structure: -Before:”extended-nuclear” -After: nuclear -Before: Men & women had shared or complementary tasks -After: more separate tasks: Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced -Factory system: work at mach's rate; paid/hr -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid

125 Old man and Maid by David Teniers (Flemish). Sexual harrassment is nothing new to our times. Neither is getting caught, although women were much more vulnerable to this kind of treatment and susceptible to being blamed for it as well. If only they had the sexual harassment panda from South Park to teach them right from wrong.

126 Following is a description of working conditions in a coal mine in the 1840s given by a woman named Betty Harris. She was 37 years old at the time: “I was married at 23, and went into a colliery (coal mine) when I was married. I used to weave when about 12 years old; can neither read nor write…I am a drawer, and work from 6 in the morning to 6 at night. Stop about an hour at noon to eat my dinner; have bread and butter for dinner; I get no drink. I have two children, but they are too young to work. I worked at drawing when I was in the family way. I know a woman who has gone home and washed herself, taken to her bed, delivered of a child, and gone to work again under the week. “I have a belt round my waist, and a chain passing between my legs, and I go on my hands and feet. The road is very steep, and we have to hold by a rope; and when there is no rope, by anything we can catch hold of. There are six women and about six boys and girls in the pit I work in; it is very hard work for a woman… “My cousin looks after my children in the day time. I am very tired when I get home at night; I fall asleep sometimes before I get washed. I am not so strong as I was, and cannot stand my work so well as I used to. I have drawn till I have bathed skin off me; the belt and chain is worse when we are in the family way. My feller (husband) has beaten me many a times for not being ready. I were not used to it at first, and he had little patience. “I have known many a man beat his drawer. I have known men take liberties with the drawers, and some of the women have bastards.” From Great Britain, Parliamentary Papers, 1842, Vol. XV, p. 84, and ibid., Vol. XVII, p. 108

127 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced - Factory system: work at mach's rate; paid/hr -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions

128 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced - Factory system: work at mach's rate; paid/hr -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions

129 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced - Factory system: work at mach's rate; paid/hr -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions

130 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced -Factory system: work at mach's rate; paid/hr -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria

131 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced -Factory system: work at mach's rate; paid/hr -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris

132 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced -Factory system: work at mach's rate; paid/hr -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases

133 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Work Conditions -Cottage ind's: work at home & own rate; paid /prod. - Workers had to use own tools -Cottage ind's also exploit women & kids -Schools, compet.from machines, & rising wages  Child labor declines after Before: Worked at own rate & paid for how much one produced -Factory system: work at mach's rate; paid/hr -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor)

134 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor) - Window taxes->No windows put in

135 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor) - Window taxes->No windows put in - No parks or trees;

136 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor) - Window taxes->No windows put in - No parks or trees; - 7 people/room in 1 house

137 -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor) - Window taxes->No windows put in - No parks or trees; -7 people/room in 1 house Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

138 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor) - Window taxes->No windows put in - No parks or trees; -7 people/room in 1 house - Street gangs; "View of the battle, corner of Elizabeth and Bayard Streets, Sixth Ward, between the 'Bowery Boys' and 'Dead Rabbits.' Source: Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper

139 -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor) - Window taxes->No windows put in - No parks or trees; -7 people/room in 1 house - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

140 -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor) - Window taxes->No windows put in - No parks or trees; -7 people/room in 1 house - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

141 -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor) - Window taxes->No windows put in - No parks or trees; -7 people/room in 1 house - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions.

142 -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor) - Window taxes->No windows put in - No parks or trees; -7 people/room in 1 house - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

143 -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor) - Window taxes->No windows put in - No parks or trees; -7 people/room in 1 house - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

144 -Pay only good at company store -Hunt down & arrest workers walking off job -Belgian commission: more spent on convict than family - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor) - Window taxes->No windows put in - No parks or trees; -7 people/room in 1 house - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

145 Relief provided by the Salvation Army. Such help, including the beds that eerily represented coffins, was designed to help the poor but discourage prolonged stays.

146 - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor) - Window taxes->No windows put in - No parks or trees; -7 people/room in 1 house - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

147 - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor) - Window taxes->No windows put in - No parks or trees; -7 people/room in 1 house - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

148 - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor) - Window taxes->No windows put in - No parks or trees; -7 people/room in 1 house - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

149 Robert Peel, British prime minister who worked for a number of labor reforms

150 - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor) - Window taxes->No windows put in - No parks or trees; -7 people/room in 1 house - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

151 - 14 hr. days common yr old girls w/baskets of coal;  Paid only if full -Hazards: mine cave-ins,explosions & coal dust, dangerous machines -Rent orphans & poor kids to fact’s  Fewer mouths to feed  1767 law giving $ to nurse/ surviving kid Living conditions -Diseases: cholera, TB, typhoid, diphtheria -Poisonous food coloring & plaster of Paris - 94% die from infectious diseases -e/o 38 (rich) vs 17 (poor) - Window taxes-> No windows put in - No parks or trees; -7 people/room in 1 house - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

152

153 One factor leading to reforms of child labor practices in the 1800’s was changing, and often idealized views of childhood as a separate and more innocent stage of human development

154 One sign of the growing emphasis on children’s development and literacy was the profusion reading primers and children’s magazines in the 19 th century.

155 Even more telling was the growth in the toy industry in the 1800s.

156

157 - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

158 - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until 1824 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

159 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s Original status of unions?

160 - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

161 - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC can't handle leisure Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

162 - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC can't handle leisure Combination Act: Anyone joining to improve cond's  Jail for 3 mo's; Boss could be 1/3 mag's Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

163 - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC can't handle leisure Combination Act: Anyone joining to improve cond's  Jail for 3 mo's; Boss could be 1/3 mag's - 7 women jailed for saying bah! Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

164 - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC can't handle leisure Combination Act: Anyone joining to improve cond's  Jail for 3 mo's; Boss could be 1/3 mag's - 7 women jailed for saying bah! -Br. strikes more peaceful than US Pullman (1894); 1930s Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

165 - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC can't handle leisure Combination Act: Anyone joining to improve cond's  Jail for 3 mo's; Boss could be 1/3 mag's - 7 women jailed for saying bah! -Br. strikes more peaceful than US Pullman (1894); 1930s - By hr wk, 10.5 hr. day Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

166 - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC can't handle leisure Combination Act: Anyone joining to improve cond's  Jail for 3 mo's; Boss could be 1/3 mag's - 7 women jailed for saying bah! -Br. strikes more peaceful than US Pullman (1894); 1930s - By hr wk, 10.5 hr. day Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

167 - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC can't handle leisure Combination Act: Anyone joining to improve cond's  Jail for 3 mo's; Boss could be 1/3 mag's - 7 women jailed for saying bah! -Br. strikes more peaceful than US Pullman (1894); 1930s - By hr wk, 10.5 hr. day Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Rising standard of living by 1900: Real wages double by 1900 Longer life expectancy Dramatic pop. growth Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

168 - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC can't handle leisure Combination Act: Anyone joining to improve cond's  Jail for 3 mo's; Boss could be 1/3 mag's - 7 women jailed for saying bah! -Br. strikes more peaceful than US Pullman (1894); 1930s - By hr wk, 10.5 hr. day Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Rising standard of living by 1900: Real wages double by 1900 Longer life expectancy Dramatic pop. growth Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

169 - Street gangs; - Manchester: 1600 bars - 26k opium apothecaries in Br. -Reformers -Rich:W.H. Lever & Robt Owens (New Harmony, Ind.); -Edwin Booth:Salv. Army Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC can't handle leisure Combination Act: Anyone joining to improve cond's  Jail for 3 mo's; Boss could be 1/3 mag's - 7 women jailed for saying bah! -Br. strikes more peaceful than US Pullman (1894); 1930s -By hr, 5.5 day -E/o ( ) 30  45 Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Rising standard of living by 1900: Real wages double by 1900 Longer life expectancy Dramatic pop. growth Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

170

171

172

173

174 Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC can't handle leisure Combination Act: Anyone joining to improve cond's  Jail for 3 mo's; Boss could be 1/3 mag's - 7 women jailed for saying bah! -Br. strikes more peaceful than US Pullman (1894); 1930s -By hr, 5.5 day -E/o ( ) 30  45 - Real wages in Br. rose 15-25% ( ); 80% ( ) Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Rising standard of living by 1900: Real wages double by 1900 Longer life expectancy Dramatic pop. growth Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

175 Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC can't handle leisure Combination Act: Anyone joining to improve cond's  Jail for 3 mo's; Boss could be 1/3 mag's - 7 women jailed for saying bah! -Br. strikes more peaceful than US Pullman (1894); 1930s -By hr, 5.5 day -E/o ( ) 30  45 - Real wages in Br. rose 15-25% ( ); 80% ( ) Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Rising standard of living by 1900: Real wages double by 1900 Longer life expectancy Dramatic pop. growth Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

176 Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC can't handle leisure Combination Act: Anyone joining to improve cond's  Jail for 3 mo's; Boss could be 1/3 mag's - 7 women jailed for saying bah! -Br. strikes more peaceful than US Pullman (1894); 1930s -By hr, 5.5 day -E/o ( ) 30  45 - Real wages in Br. rose 15-25% ( ); 80% ( ) -Br Pop. 6m. (1750)  9m. (1800)  18m. (1850) Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Rising standard of living by 1900: Real wages double by 1900 Longer life expectancy Dramatic pop. growth Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

177 Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC can't handle leisure Combination Act: Anyone joining to improve cond's  Jail for 3 mo's; Boss could be 1/3 mag's - 7 women jailed for saying bah! -Br. strikes more peaceful than US Pullman (1894); 1930s -By hr, 5.5 day -E/o ( ) 30  45 - Real wages in Br. rose 15-25% ( ); 80% ( ) -Br Pop. 6m. (1750)  9m. (1800)  18m. (1850) Eur pop 187m  466 m m. more who emigrated; Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Rising standard of living by 1900: Real wages double by 1900 Longer life expectancy Dramatic pop. growth Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

178 Demographic Lag Previously, death rates and birth rates were roughly balanced at ~30/1000/year Then suddenly, in the late 1800s, better nutrition and medical advances extended people’s life expectancy so that the death rate was ~17/year. However, because cultural values change much more slowly than technological change, birth rates remained at 30/1000/year. Therefore, each year 13 more people were being born than dying for every 1000 people in W. Europe-> population growth rate of 1.3%/year This growth rate would continue until cultural biases favoring large families were replaced by new values that favored smaller families-> birth rate falls to 17/1000/year to equal the annual death rate and ZPG (zero population growth) is attained. The period where the birth rate falls while value favoring larger families remains is called Demographic Lag, because the change cultural values lags behind the rate of technological change

179 FC.1 BIOLOGICAL, CULTURAL & TECHNOLOGICAL EVOLUTION IN HISTORY CULTURAL EVOLUTION People adapt behavior to envir.  Much faster than biol. evol. TECHNOLOGICAL EVOLUTION People adapt envir. to their needs  progressively the fastest evol. “RUBBER BAND” THEORY If 1 part of a culture changes  it affects the rest of the culture Mobile H & G soc’s  Little or no surplus  Little conflict  Fairly egalitarian society Settled agr. soc’s  More surplus  More wars & soc. stratification  Lower status for women Pre-indust. civ’s  Much more wealth  Much more war & soc. stratific.  Women lose status Indus. soc’s w/rapidly accelerating tech  Much more destr. warfare, but higher status for women Biol. & cult. evol. can’t keep up with spiraling tech. growth Society & culture can’t change as quickly Environment can’t support unltd. growth Tech. of destruction grows even faster than tech. of production  Total war is obsolete BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION Where nature very slowly adapts us to changing environment Humans distinguished by 5 major biological features: Binocular & color vision Upright posture  frees hands Hands with opposable thumbs Large well organized brain Speech  share ideas New tech’s  Surpluses Wars & conflict Much more wealth, but also major problems:

180 Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC can't handle leisure Combination Act: Anyone joining to improve cond's  Jail for 3 mo's; Boss could be 1/3 mag's - 7 women jailed for saying bah! -Br. strikes more peaceful than US Pullman (1894); 1930s -By hr, 5.5 day -E/o ( ) 30  45 - Real wages in Br. rose 15-25% ( ); 80% ( ) -Br Pop. 6m. (1750)  9m. (1800)  18m. (1850) Eur pop 187m  466 m m. more who emigrated; Public educ. funding rose 30X  Kids out of factories Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Rising standard of living by 1900: Real wages double by 1900 Longer life expectancy Dramatic pop. growth Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

181 Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC can't handle leisure Combination Act: Anyone joining to improve cond's  Jail for 3 mo's; Boss could be 1/3 mag's - 7 women jailed for saying bah! -Br. strikes more peaceful than US Pullman (1894); 1930s -By hr, 5.5 day -E/o ( ) 30  45 - Real wages in Br. rose 15-25% ( ); 80% ( ) -Br Pop. 6m. (1750)  9m. (1800)  18m. (1850) Eur pop 187m  466 m m. more who emigrated; Public educ. funding rose 30X  Kids out of factories -Curriculum more modern: math, history, modern literature Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Rising standard of living by 1900: Real wages double by 1900 Longer life expectancy Dramatic pop. growth Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

182 Cons. & Lib politicians 1833: 9-14 only 68 hrs./wk; - No 8-yr olds in mines or factories 1848: no 9 yr olds; altern. days for & only 12 hrs w/2 hr's off 1850: 10.5 hrs for kids & women  10 hrs standard by 1900 Unions -Illegal until Only mutual aid soc’s -Owners saw unions as violation of free contract; -WC can't handle leisure Combination Act: Anyone joining to improve cond's  Jail for 3 mo's; Boss could be 1/3 mag's - 7 women jailed for saying bah! -Br. strikes more peaceful than US Pullman (1894); 1930s -By hr, 5.5 day -E/o ( ) 30  45 - Real wages in Br. rose 15-25% ( ); 80% ( ) -Br Pop. 6m. (1750)  9m. (1800)  18m. (1850) Eur pop 187m  466 m m. more who emigrated; Public educ. funding rose 30X  Kids out of factories -Curriculum more modern: math, history, modern literature -2 new classes: industrial capitalists and Proletariat (WC) Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Rising standard of living by 1900: Real wages double by 1900 Longer life expectancy Dramatic pop. growth Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

183 A young couple bids farewell to its homeland in “The Last of England” by Ford Madox Brown

184 *** FC.113 THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Mass migration to urban areas  New cities rise up quickly Village network of friends & relatives is replaced by: Nucl. Fam. in city w/less family & commun. support Awful working cond’s: Low wages & little job security Work separates fam’s from home & each other Dangerous machinery & long days Awful living cond’s: Polluted air & water & tainted food Poorly built & crowded housing Industrial Revolution (FC.111) Growing reform movements: Govt. laws to regulate work conditions, public sanitation, etc. Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Rapid advances in public health & medicine (FC.117) Some fact. owners work to provide good housing & work conditions Workers form labor unions to win better work conditions. Rising standard of living by 1900: Real wages double by 1900 Longer life expectancy Dramatic pop. growth Relatives & friends tend to migrate to same cities People crowded together in tenements Some family & community ties are maintained Housing shortage after WWII  Fam’s move to their own separate homes in suburbs (FC.142) Truly nuclear fam’s isolated from relatives & neighbors by distance & private property WWII (FC.136) WWII (FC.136) Growing social problems including crime, alcoholism & drugs


Download ppt "The Tyne foundry As depicted here by Kathe Kollwitz, conditions on farms were often bad enough to drive many people to go to the cities to find work."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google