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Chapter Sixteen: Human Services Workers in Crisis: Burnout, Vicarious Traumatization, and Compassion Fatigue.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Sixteen: Human Services Workers in Crisis: Burnout, Vicarious Traumatization, and Compassion Fatigue."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Sixteen: Human Services Workers in Crisis: Burnout, Vicarious Traumatization, and Compassion Fatigue

2 Helping Professionals: Prime Candidates  Nature of the job is to be intensely involved with people who are in need of assistance.  Recipe for burnout:  High levels of motivation  Idealistic  Expectation that their work will give their life a sense of meaning  Many helping professions have historically low success rates.  Human service field is becoming more difficult.

3 Defining Burnout  Historical roots from the 1970s  “Burned out” physically, emotionally, spiritually, interpersonally, and behaviorally to the point of exhaustion.  Herbert Freudenberger (1974, 1975)  Described young, idealistic volunteers working in alternative health-care settings who started to look and act worse than many of their clients.  Burnout consists of the following:  Lost energy to the point of exhaustion  Lost enthusiasm to the point of absolute indifference  Passion is replaced by cynicism  Complete lack of confidence that your work is having any positive impact

4 Dynamics of Burnout  Foundation Blocks of Burnout  Role ambiguity  Role conflict  Role overload  Inconsequentiality  Isolation  Autonomy  Research on Burnout Dynamics  Myths That Engender Burnout  Symptoms of Burnout  Behavioral  Physical  Interpersonal  Attitudinal

5 Dynamics of Burnout Cont.  Levels of Burnout  Trait  State  Activity  Stages of Burnout  Enthusiasm  Stagnation  Frustration  Apathy

6 Worker–Client Relationships  Countertransference  Secondary Traumatic Stress  Vicarious Traumatization  Compassion Fatigue  Compassion Satisfaction

7 The Culpability of Organizations  Much of the responsibility lies with the employer.  Employee’s influence on policy and procedures  Employee’s level of autonomy  Employee’s feeling of appreciation  Employers should provide consultation and supervision.  Employers should offer support, social connection, and self-care opportunities.

8 Self-Recognition of Burnout  NO ONE IS IMMUNE!  Everyone has a blind spot.  Typical MO is to increase effort (actually increases the problem) rather than attempting to change the situation.

9 Intervention Strategies  Assessment  Burnout  Compassion Fatigue and Compassion Satisfaction  Work Environment  Intervention Through Training  Intervention With the Organization  Burnout-Proofing an Agency  Social Support Systems  Support Groups  The Individual and the Organization  Self-Care

10 Private Practitioners and Burnout  Isolation  Business Concerns  Financial  Client base  Marketing services  Maintaining a Public Presence  Difficult Work Schedule  Evenings  Weekends  Few vacations

11 INTERVENTION WITH THE INDIVIDUAL  Direct Action  Palliative Action  BASIC IDS  Behavior  Affect  Sensation  Imagery  Cognition  Interpersonal relationships  Drugs/biology  Setting

12 Epilogue: Cross-Cultural Comparisons  Victor Savicki (2002) landmark study using the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales  General environmental work measures  Individual conformity measures


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