Presentation on theme: "Manufactured Home Installer CE Course Approved by the Department of Safety & Professional Services – Approval # Presented by the Wisconsin Housing Alliance."— Presentation transcript:
Manufactured Home Installer CE Course Approved by the Department of Safety & Professional Services – Approval # Presented by the Wisconsin Housing Alliance
Contents of this Course SPS 321 Code Enforcement Refresher – Glazing – Ventilation – Fire protection – Preserved wood Installation Standard applicable Post-2007 Home Soils Piers, Shims & Caps
Primary Resources UDC Code SPS 321 Installation Code (engrossed version of Part 3285 with Wisconsin Amendments Soil Classification Information Slides
Let’s Get Started The UDC applies to both new and used (relocated) homes. (However, the production date as shown on the data plate determines which installation code applies.) Act 45 laws of 2005 authorized the Department Commerce (now Department of Safety & Professional Standards) to adopt installation standards. The UDC applies to additions to manufactured homes including garages, exterior decks and steps.
Glazing Requirements Glazing is not often a consideration for home installers but it can be if a door or window is altered. Both the UDC and the HUD Code have a general rule that glazed openings shall be at least 8% of the gross floor area. (3280.103 and SPS 321.05 The HUD Code has no exceptions but the UDC does.
Glazing UDC glazing exceptions – Habitable rooms, other than bedrooms, located in basements or ground floors do not require natural light. – Natural light may be obtained from adjoining areas through glazed openings, louvers or other approved methods.
Door openings into adjoining areas may not be used to satisfy the 8% standard. Natural ventilation is required in all habitable rooms UDC Glazing
HUD Ventilation Each manufactured home must have whole house ventilation with a capacity of 0.035 ft 3/ min/ft 2. This is in addition to any openable window area. The ventilation system must not draw or expel air into the floor, wall or ceiling/roof systems
Ventilation Natural ventilation can be provided by: – Openable doors (UDC only) – Openable skylights (UDC only) – Openable windows (UDC & HUD)
UDC Ventilation The net area of the openable doors, skylights or windows shall be at least 3.5% of the net floor area of the room. Infiltration cannot be considered as make up air. All exhaust shall terminate outside the building
HUD Ventilation At least half of the minimum glazed area shall be openable directly to the outside for unobstructed ventilation.
UDC Safety Glazing Safety glazing is required in doors by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. Safety glass is required when installed in any of the following locations: – In any sidelight or glazing adjacent to a door that meets all of the following: The nearest point of the glazing is within 2 feet of the door. The nearest point of the glazing is within 5 feet of the floor. The plane of the glazing is within 30 degrees of the plane of the door when the door is in the closed position.
UDC Glazing Requirements In any wall where the glazing is within 5 feet vertically of the lowest drain inlet and within 3 feet horizontally of the nearest part of the inner rim of a bathtub, hot tub, shower, spa or whirlpool appliance. Within 4 feet vertically of a tread or landing in a stairway and within one foot horizontally of the near edge of the tread or landing. Within 4 feet vertically of the floor and 3 feet horizontally of the nosing of the top or bottom tread of a stair. Safety glass is not required where the size of an individual pane of glass is 8 inches or less in the least dimension SPS 321.05
UDC Glazing Glass blocks are considered to be masonry products and are regulated under the ACI 530 standard adopted under s. SPS 320.24. They are not required to be safety glazing.
Ceiling Heights Both the HUD Code and UDC have a general requirement for 7 foot ceiling heights. Both allow less than 7 feet for 50 percent of the floor area but the UDC requires 7 feet in all habitable rooms, kitchens, hallways, bathrooms and corridors The HUD Code requirement applies to all habitable rooms and bathrooms. Hallways and foyers can be 6’ 6”.
Ceiling Height The UDC allows beams and girders or other projections shall not project more than 8 inches below the required ceiling height.
UDC only These next slides only refer to SPS 321 or the UDC Construction Standards. The focus is on things that MH installers may be called on to consider when adding an addition to a manufactured home or constructing a garage.
Attics and Crawl Space Access An attic or a loft is a space found directly below the pitched roof of a house. As attics fill the space between the ceiling of the top floor of a building and the slanted roof, they are known for being awkwardly shaped spaces with exposed rafters and difficult-to-reach corners. Measurements can be difficult if you don’t know where to measure.
Attics with 150 or more square feet of area and 30 or more inches of clear height between the top of the ceiling framing and the bottom of the rafter or top truss chord framing shall be provided with an access opening of at least 14 by 24 inches, accessible from inside the structure.
UDC Attic Access Attics with 150 or more square feet of area and 30 or more inches of clear height between the top of the ceiling framing and the bottom of the rafter or top truss chord framing shall be provided with an access opening of at least 14 by 24 inches, accessible from inside the structure.
Measure from top of the framing To the bottom of the rafter or truss
Crawl Space Access UDC - Crawl spaces with 18 inches of clearance or more between the crawl space floor and the underside of the house floor joist framing shall be provided with an access opening of at least 14 by 24 inches. HUD - Access opening(s) not less than 18 inches in width and 24 inches in height and not less than three square feet (ft.2) in area must be provided and must be located so that any utility connections located under the home are accessible.
UDC Fire Separation Fire separation distance is to be measured perpendicular from wall to wall or property line, ignoring overhangs.
Fire separation distances between manufactured home within a manufactured community are established shall be provided in accordance with the distances specified in s. SPS 326 unless there are other local standards.
UDC Fire Rated Construction Is designed to protect the home from external fire sources. Between a dwelling and a detached garage the fire rated construction may be on either facing wall. (SPS 321.08) However, between 2 dwellings, the fire rated construction shall be on both facing walls.
Fire Rated Construction Fire rated construction for a wall facing a detached garage is a 3/4 th hour wall. Fire rated construction for a wall facing another dwelling is also a 3/4 th hour wall. Fire rated construction for a window facing a detached garage is 1/3 rd hour.
Fire Rated Construction The minimum separation distance between a dwelling and detached garage is 5 feet.
Fire Rated Construction The minimum separation distance 20 feet does not require fire rated construction. Fire separation distance between a dwelling and the property line of 3 feet or more means that fire rated construction is not required.
Fire Rated Construction Gypsum Board comes in 3 types – Regular, Type X & Foil Backed Fire rated construction requires Type X One layer of 5/8-inch Type X gypsum drywall on the garage side of the separation wall or ceiling is one example of fire rated construction. Two layers of ½-inch gypsum drywall on the garage side of the separation wall or ceiling is an example of fire rated construction.
Joints Joints must be taped or sealed. Joints shall be fitted so that the gap is no more than 1/20-inch with joints backed by either solid wood or another layer of drywall such that the joints are staggered. Note: 1/20-inch is approximately the thickness of a U.S. dime.
Fire Rated Construction The door and frame assembly between the dwelling unit and an attached garage shall be labeled by an independent testing agency as having a minimum fire-resistive rating of 20 minutes. (Home improvement stores generally sell 20 minute and 90 minute doors. Often there is no price difference so shop smart.)
A window can be installed in a fire rated door only if allowed by the door's listing.
Draft Stopping Acceptable draft stopping materials for concealed roof spaces and attics include: A. 3/8-inch wood structural panel B. ½ -inch gypsum board
Fire Blocking Fire blocking must be provided in all of the following locations: In concealed spaces of walls and partitions, including furred spaces, at the ceiling and floor levels. At all interconnections between concealed vertical and horizontal spaces including the attachment between a carport and a dwelling. At all openings around wires, cables, vents, pipes, ducts, chimneys and fireplaces at ceiling and floor level.
Fire blocking for wires, cables, pipes and vents only, non-shrinking caulk, putty mortar, or similar material may be used provided no dimension of the opening exceeds 1/2 inch around the penetrating object.
Fireblocking shall consist of one of the following: (a)2-inch nominal lumber. (b) Two layers of one-inch nominal lumber. (c) One thickness of ¾-inch nominal plywood or wood structural panel with any joints backed with the same material. (d)One thickness of ½-inch gypsum wallboard, face nailed or face screwed to solid wood, with any joints backed with the same material.
For chimneys, fireplaces and metal vents, fireblocking shall be metal, cement board or other noncombustible material.
Fiberglass or mineral wool batt insulation may be used if both of the following conditions are met: 1. The least dimension of the opening may not exceed 4 inches. 2. The batt shall be installed to fill the entire thickness of the opening or stud cavity.
SPS 321.10 Protection against decay and termites To protect wood, the wood shall be labeled and pressure treated with preservative in accordance with a AWPA standard.
When Preserved Wood Is Used (a) Resting directly upon or embedded in earth. (b) Floor joists or sleepers that meet certain conditions. (c) Floor joists exterior to the dwelling that are within 18 inches above exterior grade, unless protected with a moisture barrier. (d) Girders that span directly over and within 12 inches of earth. (e) Sills and rim joists that rest on concrete or masonry and are also below grade or within 8 inches above final exterior grade. (f) Siding and sheathing in contact with concrete, masonry or earth and within 6 inches above final exterior grade. (g) Ends of wood structural members and their shims resting on or supported in masonry or concrete walls and having clearances of less than ½ inch on the top, sides and ends. (h) Bottom plates or sole plates of walls that rest on concrete or masonry and that are below exterior grade or less than 8 inches above final exterior grade. (i) Columns in direct contact with concrete or masonry unless supported by a structural pedestal or plinth block at least one inch above the floor. (j) Any structural part of an outdoor deck, including the decking. (k) Permanent wood foundations.
Floor Joints or Sleepers Require Preserved Wood a. Floor joists or sleepers that meet all of the following conditions: 1. The joists or sleepers are protected from the weather. 2. The joists or sleepers are within 18 inches above a lower floor surface, deck or soil. b. Floor joists exterior to the dwelling that are within 18 inches above exterior grade, unless protected with a moisture barrier. c. Girders that span directly over and within 12 inches of earth.
Decay & Termite Resistant Species Naturally Decay-resistant Species = Heartwood of redwood, cypress, black walnut, catalpa, chestnut, sage orange, red mulberry, white oak, or cedar lumber Naturally Termite resistant Species = Heartwood of bald cypress, redwood, and eastern red cedar
MH Home Installation The following slides relate to manufactured home installation standards applicable to home produced on or after April 1, 2007. Use the combined code that is listed as an additional resource for this course as your guide.
MH Installation Federal Law at 24 CFR 3285 sets out federal model installation standards. Wisconsin has adopted these standards with some modifications. The code uses underlined text to designate Wisconsin amendments.
MH Topics General concepts related to the code Soil conditions, drainage and grading Alternative foundation systems How to read pier load tables Caps, blocks and shims
General Topics A manufacturer must provide two types of installation instructions: – At least one method for temporary support when the home is stored at the plant, a retailer’s lot or the home site. – A complete installation manual for permanent installation of the home. A manufacturer's installation manual must note site conditions that do not allow the use of the manufacturer's installation instructions.
An alteration of the home by the installer is not allowed if it imposes additional loads to the manufactured home or its foundation unless the alteration is approved by: A. Manufacturer's installation instructions B. By a registered professional engineer or architect
Abbreviations to Know ASTM -- American Society for Testing and Materials AWPA – American Wood-Preservers’ Association DAPIA – Design Approval Primary Inspection Agency – approves manufacturer designs as meeting the HUD Code MHCC – Manufactured Housing Consensus Committee – the code approval committee MHCSS -- Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards (the HUD Code) NFPA - National Fire Protection Association UL - Underwriters Laboratories
Flood Hazard Maps In Wisconsin, the “flood hazard maps” means the maps adopted by each county. This varies across the country. In Wisconsin’s code, the term “department” means the Department of Safety & Professional Services.
What does Flood Hazard Area Mean? The greater of these two: a. The special flood hazard area shown on the flood insurance rate map. b. The area subject to flooding during the design flood and shown on a county’s flood hazard map, or otherwise legally designated.
Prior to the initial installation of a new manufactured home, the owner or permit applicant is responsible to determine whether the home site lies wholly or partly within a special flood hazard area as shown on the county’s flood insurance rate map, flood boundary and floodway map, or flood hazard boundary map. If so located, the map and supporting studies adopted by the county may be used to determine the flood hazard zone and base flood elevation at the site.
What is the “Lowest” Floor Flood regulations often refer to the “lowest” floor. In Wisconsin, for a manufactured home this means: The floor of the lowest enclosed area of a manufactured home. An unfinished or flood-resistant enclosure, used solely for vehicle parking, home access, or limited storage, must not be considered the lowest floor, provided the enclosed area is not constructed so as to render the home in violation of the flood- related provisions of this standard.
What is “Level” The manufactured home must be adequately leveled prior to completion of the installation, so that the home's performance will not be adversely affected. The home will be considered adequately leveled if there is no more than 1/4 inch difference between adjacent pier supports (frame or perimeter) and the exterior doors and windows of the home do not bind and can be properly operated.
Installation in a Flood Zone Installation of a manufactured home in a flood hazard area is also subject to FEMA regulations (FEMA 185). Appliance air inlets and exhausts in flood hazard areas may NOT be located under the floor of the home. Appliance air inlets and exhausts in flood hazard areas must be located at or above the same elevation as the lowest elevation of the lowest floor of the home.
Soil Classifications for MH Installers The soil classification and bearing capacity of the soil must be determined before the foundation is constructed and anchored. The code delineates several methods for making those determinations
Steps for Soil Determinations (a) Soil tests (b) Soil records (c) If the soil class or bearing capacity cannot be determined by test or soil records, but its type can be identified, the soil classification, allowable pressures, and torque values shown in Table to §3285.202 may be used. (d) A pocket penetrometer (e) In lieu of determining the soil bearing capacity by use of the methods shown in the table, an allowable pressure of 1,500 psf may be used, unless the site-specific information requires the use of lower values based on soil classification and type. (f) If the soil appears to be composed of peat, organic clays, or uncompacted fill, or appears to have unusual conditions, a registered professional geologist, registered professional engineer, or registered architect must determine the soil classification and maximum allowable soil bearing capacity.
In Communities Where a community-wide soil test does not exist and a soil test is required by chapter SPS 321, such as for a proposed frost-free- foundation design, the test shall be conducted to determine the soils in the entire community rather than at an individual site.
Soil Table Find soil description here Then Find Soil Bearing # here
Torque Test The torque test probe is a device for measuring the torque value of soils to assist in evaluating the holding capacity of the soil in which the ground anchor is placed. The shaft must be of suitable length for the full depth of the ground anchor. Courtesy of Minuteman Products
Torque Test The torque value is a measure of the load resistance provided by the soil when subject to the turning or twisting force of the probe. The value is read from the gauge on the wrench.
Drainage Drainage must be provided to direct surface water away from the home to protect against erosion of foundation supports and to prevent water build-up under the home, as shown in Figure to §3285.203.
All drainage must be diverted away from the home and must slope a minimum of one-half inch per foot away from the foundation for the first ten feet. Other methods, such as a drain tile and automatic sump pump system, must be provided to remove any water that may collect under the home. The use of ditches and culverts to drain surface runoff is subject to local and state regulations and shall be included and considered in the overall site preparation.
Where property lines, walls, slopes, or other physical conditions prohibit the required slope, the site must be provided with drains or swales or otherwise graded to drain water away from the structure.
Vapor Retarder A vapor retarder must be installed to cover the ground under the home for all homes produced on or after 4/1/2007. A minimum of six mil polyethylene sheeting or its equivalent must be used. The entire area under the home must be covered with the vapor retarder, except for areas under open porches, decks, and recessed entries. Joints in the vapor retarder must be overlapped at least 12 inches.
The vapor retarder may be placed directly beneath footings, or otherwise installed around or over footings placed at grade, and around anchors or other obstructions. Any voids or tears in the vapor retarder must be repaired. At least one repair method must be provided in the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Alternative Foundation Designs Alternative foundation systems or designs are permitted in accordance with either of the following: (1) Systems or designs must be manufactured and installed in accordance with their listings by a nationally recognized testing agency, based on a nationally recognized testing protocol; or (2) System designs must be prepared by a professional engineer or a registered architect or tested and certified by a professional engineer or registered architect in accordance with acceptable engineering practice and must be manufactured and installed so as not to take the home out of compliance with the Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards (part 3280 of this chapter). (3) SPS 321.40 (1) (k) Footings and foundations may be designed in accordance with subchapters IV and V of chapter SPS 321, which include a frost depth of at least 48 inches.
Wisconsin Housing Alliance Frost Free Design The Wisconsin Housing Alliance has a proprietary frost free design that is approved by the State of Wisconsin. It is not approved for use in other states. It is based on the simple premise that is there is not water under the home there can be no frost heave. Other companies have similar designs
Place on proper soil, grade as required, install perimeter to manufacturer’s instructions, drain water way by gutters or drain tile.
State Approved Slab This slab design was prepared by the Department as a safe harbor meaning that local inspectors will accept this design. Pay particular attention in this design as well to the note which set out requirements for its use.
Limitations: 1. Minimum 3,000 psi Concrete. [HUD 3285.312 (b) (ii)] 2. Rebar and mesh at least grade 40. 3. Soil Bearing capacity at least 2,000 psf [SPS 321.40(2)(b)2. and HUD 3285.312 (b) (ii)] 4. Placed on undisturbed soil. Shall not be placed on unprepared fill material, organic soil, alluvial soil, mud, or frozen soil. [SPS 321.40(2)(b)1. and HUD 3285.312 (a)] 5. 8 to 10” of clean graded sand, gravel or crushed stone base in clay soils [SPS 321.20(2) with added thickness to resist frost.] Compaction of sand etc, should 95% of modified Proctor. 6. 6 mil vapor retarder overlapped 12 inches and sealed. [HUD 3285.204] 7. Maximum pier spacing of 7 feet with max load per pier of 5, 300 lbs. when placed on 6” thick slab. [SPS 321.40(2)(b)10. and HUD 3285 (e), Table.] 8. Maximum load per pier of 11,900 lbs. at mating line when centered on the 20” W. X 10” D. thickened slab, Section B-B, reinforced with 2 - #4 bars. Individual pier footings at mating line meeting sizing requirements s.3285 (e), Table may be used in lieu of continuous thickened slab. [HUD 3285 (e), Table.] 9. Site shall drain away from the home per SPS 321.12. Ensure drainage of sand fill zone so that any clay does not cause water to pool under the slab. 10. The water table shall not be above the frost penetration depth, i.e. at least 4 feet below grade. [SPS 321.15(2)(a)] 11. Saw cut joints in slab so that sections are approximately square. (Example: 16’ by 76’ slab = 4 segments.)
Pier Designs & Loads The load bearing capacity for each pier must be designed to include consideration for the dimensions of the home, the design dead and live loads, the spacing of the piers, and the way the piers are used to support the home.
How to Read 3285.303 Table 1. Select the desired pier spacing 2. Find Roof Load from Data Plate 3. Read across for maximum load
Interpolation Interpolation or creating a midpoint out of other know values such as pier spacings is permitted. That means you can create a table for 7 foot spacing by comparing values for 6 foot spacing to those for 8 foot spacing.
Example 7 ft. 0 in …..| 30 |Frame ………| 4,700 + 6,200/2 =5,450 Know Values from the Table Interpolated Value
Table Types Table 1 to §3285.303 is Frame Blocking Only/Perimeter Support Not Required Except at Openings Table 2 to §3285.303 is Frame Plus Perimeter Blocking/Perimeter Blocking Required
Block Piers (1) Load-bearing (not decorative) concrete blocks must have nominal dimensions of at least 8 inches × 8 inches × 16 inches; (2) The concrete blocks must be stacked with their hollow cells aligned vertically; and (3) When piers are constructed of blocks stacked side-by-side, each layer must be at right angles to the preceding one.
Blocking A 4" solid block can be used every place in a stack of pier blocks on the bottom of the stack
Clearance A minimum clearance of 12 inches must be maintained between the lowest member of the main frame (I-beam or channel beam) and the grade under all areas of the home. (This is actually more stringent than for pre- April 1, 2007 homes. Under the prior standard, 12 inch clearance was required for 75% of the area under the home.)
Wood Cap A wood cap must be No. 2 spruce/pine/fir. All lumber used as cap and gap filler shall be the same species of wood. Lumber used to fill a gap in the pier may only be placed at the top of the pier. All caps must be of the same length and width as the piers on which they rest. (Some mistakenly read this as only requiring the cap lumber to be the same size, rather, the wood has to be the same size as the pier below it.)
Wood Caps When split caps are used on double-stacked blocks, the caps must be installed with the long dimension across the joint in the blocks below.
Shims Nominal 4 inch × 6 inch × 1 inch shims to level the home and fill any gaps between the base of the main chassis beam and the top of the pier cap. The dimensions are read as width, length and height. Shims must be used in pairs, and must be driven in tightly so that they do not occupy more than one inch of vertical height
Manufactured Piers Manufactured pier heights must be selected so that the adjustable risers do not extend more than 2 inches when finally positioned.
Thank You for Your Attention Using these slides plus the other resource materials, please take the exam at this time.