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alias STRUCTURE UNDERSTANDING the LOAD CARRYING SYSTEM of BUILDINGS

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SYSTEM Method of approach to understanding Collection of interrelated elements Various aspects of elements and relationships Problems related to the whole system

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STRUCTURE Multiple structures in a system. Abstract notion describing interrelationship of elements Many different representations (verbal, graphical, mathematical).

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MY FAMILY SYSTEM Mother Father Foster mother MeBrother Sister Brother in Law Sister in Law Wife Nephew SonDaughterNiece Daughter in Law Son in Law Granddaughter Grandson

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STRUCTURE of MARRIAGES MATHEMATICAL REPRESENTATION

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PARENTAGE STRUCTURE Mother Father Foster mother MeBrother Sister Brother in Law Sister in Law Wife Nephew SonDaughterNiece Daughter in Law Son in Law Grandson Granddaughter GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

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A SIMPLE BUILDING PLAN Exterior Corridor Reception Secretary Boss Room 1 Hall Room 2 Room 3 Room 4

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CIRCULATION STRUCTURE Reception Secretary Boss Corridor Exterior Room 1 Hall Room 2 Room 3 Room 4

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WHY BUILDINGS? Security (predators, pests, enemies, etc.) Meso-environment (thermal, acoustic, light)

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PROBLEMS in BUILDINGS Problem specific structures Problems and factors Nearly all elements involved

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HUMAN FACTORS Cultural (meanings, use patterns, etc.) Psychological (spatial perception, spatial cognition) Physiological (thermal comfort) Social (spatial layout)

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ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Climatic (thermal, radiation, wind, rain, snow, etc.) Topographical (slopes, vegetation) Geological (gravitation, earthquakes, materials, foundations) Economic (materials, labor, finance)

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MECHANICAL FACTORS Foundations Mechanics (forces and motions) Loads (gravitation, wind, earthquakes)

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LOAD CARRYING SYSTEM (LCS) Elements + connectivity structure STRUCTURE of building Structural problems

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A SIMPLE BUILDING LCS Slab Beam 1 Beam 2 Beam 3 Beam 4 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Wall 1 Wall 2

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BUILDING ELEMENTS C1C2 C3C4 Slab Wall 1 Wall 2 B1 B2 B3 B4

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STRUCTURE of CONNECTIVITY Slab B1B2B3B4 Wall 1Wall 2 C1C2C3 C4 Edge connection End connection

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STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS of LCSs Restraint (sufficient members and supports to provide for equilibrium) Strength (sufficient material to prevent rupture) Rigidity (sufficient resistance to deformation) Ductility (sufficient capacity for energy absorption)

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COMPATIBILITY REQUIREMENTS of LCSs Spatial layout (e.g. hotels, bearing walls) Materials (e.g. masonry and vaults) Services (integration of services) Construction (e.g. bearing walls, integral forms, tower cranes)

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STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR Displacements/deformations Load Internal force Load Internal forces Energy storage Language of description is mechanical.

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UNDERSTANDING BEHAVIOR of LCSs Modeling of LCS Prediction of loads Analysis of mechanical forms Understanding in terms of basic modes

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DIRECTION of PREDOMINANT LOAD Vertical (gravitation) Horizontal (wind) Combination (earthquake)

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GEOMETRIC FORM 3D forms - solid, systems of 1D and 2D forms Dimensionality 1D forms - rod, planar curve, spatial curve 2D forms - plane, surface, systems of 1D forms Orientability

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MECHANICAL FORM Combination of geometric form and load Orientation Load Geometric Form Mechanical form = Oriented and loaded geometric form

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MECHANICAL FORMS (BEAM and COLUMN) Geometric Form = ROD Load Orientation Load Orientation BEAMCOLUMN

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MECHANICAL FORMS (ARCH and CURVED BEAM) Geometric Form = PLANAR CURVE Load ARCH LoadOrientation Load Orientation CURVED BEAM

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Arch

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Curved Beam

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Spatial Curved Beam

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MECHANICAL FORMS (SLAB and WALL) Geometric Form = PLANE Load WALL LoadOrientation Load Orientation SLAB

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Slab

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Folded Plate

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MECHANICAL FORMS (SHELL) Load

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Shell

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Dome

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UNDERSTANDING SPECIFIC BUILDING LCS’s Resolve hierarchy of structural problems Determine scale of problem (overall building, breakdown of main structure, detail elements) Resolve structure of elements Recognize the MF of elements

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World Trade Towers

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SKYSCRAPER (overall building scale) Gravitation MF = COLUMN Wind or Earthquake MF = BEAMGF = ROD

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SKYSCRAPER (main structure scale) GF = PLANE Gravitation MF = SLAB MF = WALL Gravitation MF = WALL Earthquake

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Sears Tower

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SKYSCRAPER (detail scale) GF = PLANE GF = ROD Lateral Load MF = BEAM Weight Axial Load MF = COLUMN Axial Load Weight MF = SLAB

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BEHAVIOR of the BEAM BENDING MOMENT SHEAR INTERNAL FORCES

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BEHAVIOR of the COLUMN Compression Tension INTERNAL FORCES COMPRESSIVE AXIAL FORCE TENSILE AXIAL FORCE

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BEHAVIOR of the COLUMN (BUCKLING) BENDING MOMENT INTERNAL FORCE Load

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DESIGN for BENDING Provide material away from the center. I beam RC beam Provide the right kind of material.

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DESIGN for SHEAR Truss Provide diagonals I beam Castella beam Welding

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DESIGN for COMPRESSION AGAINST BUCKLING Provide this material away from the center. Provide the necessary material in axial form.

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TWO BASIC PROBLEMS 1. Space enclosure. 2. Provision of horizontal levels. Planes of equal potential energy

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CONCLUSION Look at a building LCS hierarchically. Identify the predominant loading. Identify the geometric form. Identify the mechanical form. Estimate the behavior.

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