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教授:陳文山 學生:林晏羽 班級:碩研電子一 甲 學號: 9930228 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION.

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Presentation on theme: "教授:陳文山 學生:林晏羽 班級:碩研電子一 甲 學號: 9930228 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION."— Presentation transcript:

1 教授:陳文山 學生:林晏羽 班級:碩研電子一 甲 學號: THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

2 EVOLUTION OF RFIC HANDSET PAS 2

3 手機業務增長 / 預計增長 2002 年至 2013 圖 1 。手機手機部門的增長,較去年同期預測全球(百萬)。 3 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

4 Requirements for Power Amplifiers 4 PA 設計使用功率尺寸 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

5 Semiconductor Technologies for RF Integrated Circuit Handset PAs 5 1.III - V 族化合物為基礎的技術和矽為基礎 2. MESFET 3. PHEMT 4. HBT 半導體技術可用於 PA 的應用: 砷化鎵( GAAS )優點: 1. 高擊穿電壓 2. 高增益 3. 線性度好 4. 加強 PAE 的高產量 Vcc THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

6 Semiconductor Technologies for RF Integrated Circuit Handset Pas 6 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

7 Handset Power Amplifier Design Methodologies and Architectures Saturated Power Amplifi er Design Methodologies and Architectures Power Amplifier Design Methodology 7 Match COMS Conroller HBT PA HBT PA 圖 2. 方塊圖,四組頻帶 GSM / GPRS 功率放大器。 CMOS 控制器提供直流偏置, 邏輯控制,功率控制的兩條平行異質結雙極晶體管。阻抗匹配電路用於輸入 和輸出的放大器。

8 Automatic Bas Controller Vcc RFout RFin Vapc 圖 3. 方塊圖三個階段功率放大器。第一階段提供線性增益, 第二階段提供足夠的功率來驅動第三階段為飽和模式操作。 8 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

9 圖 4. 顯微照片一個四頻的 SiGe HBT 功率放大器。這樣的設計 集成了控制階段和擴增階段在一個芯片上。 9 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

10 Saturated Power Amplifier Design Architectures 10 PA RampPAC Vcc V bat 兩個主要的架構是使用在 GSM 功率放大器,一個是可變增益,另一 種是固定增益架構。在可變增益架構, [ 功率放大器有固定的輸入功 率,通常由一個壓控振盪器( VCO ),輸出功率為通過改變增益功 率放大器通過偏置控制。 圖 5. 電流控制,可變增益電路。調整後的增益是通過 改變偏壓的感應電流在輸出。 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

11 PA RampPAC Vcc V bat 圖 6 。電壓控制,可變增益電路。集電器的電壓是感覺到的, 以及一系列 FET 的電壓調整設置集電電壓。 11 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

12 Linear Power Amplifier Design and Its Architecture 12 Driver Stage Bias Output Match lnter Stage Match Lnput Match Power Stage Bias Vcc 1 GND Vcc 1 V CONT V REF RF ln RF Ou t Module MMIC DA 圖 7. 簡化的兩階段線性功率放大器 手機框圖。第一階段由一個驅動放 大器(大),其次是功率放大器 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

13 Camier Matching Circuit Load λ µ Transformer Peak 圖 8. 一系列的簡化結構型功率放大器 Doherty 輸出載波信 號分離和通過路徑 1 和路徑 2 ,結合在負載。 13 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

14 Load M ·Z Load M -1 Z Load M ·Z Load Q1Q1 Z o 90 o Q2Q2 (A)(A) 14 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

15 Load M ·Z Load (Open) Z Load M ·Z Load Q1Q1 Z o 90 o Q2Q2 8 2 圖 9. 一種簡化結構的開關 的功率放大器。 ( A )高功率模式。 ( B )低功耗模式。 15 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

16 圖 10 。測量的功率附加效率的系列 型功率放大器(實線)相比,一個典 型的 AB 類功率放大器(虛線)。 圖 11 。測得的功率附加效率( PAE )和相鄰 信道功率比( ACPR )在 5 MHz 偏移使用寬帶 分碼多工存取計劃( 3GPP 的 WCDMA 的 rel.99 )。載波頻率為 836.5MHz 16 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

17 I/M O/M I/M O/M Additional Matching Point 1 V d2 Q2Q2 V d1 V c1 P in Point 2 Point 1 I d2 Q1Q1 I d1 V c1 SW 2 圖 12. 框圖步階功率放大器。開關是用來改 變功率放大器周邊設備。 I / M :輸入匹配。 O/M :輸出匹配 17 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

18 0 Bias Circuit Second Stage Switch Bias Circuit First Stage Lnput Matching Lnput Matching lnter Stage Matchin lnter Stage Matchin Switch dc Feed dc Feed dc Feed MMIC +45 Phase -45 Phase 0 dc Feed dc Feed dc Feed ldc Feed and Harmonics Tuning -45 Phase +45 Phase 0 0 ldc Feed and Harmonics Tuning 50 Ω Ω 6-10 Ω dc Block RF ln V ctrl Vcc Y1Y1 Y2Y2 Y1Y1 Y2Y2 Y1Y1 Y1Y1 V ctrl 圖 13. 示意圖的開關負載 不敏感的功率放大器。該 裝置周圍是改變部分關閉 輸出單元。 18

19 S/W CNTL V mode Biss CNTL Biss Circuits Match Circuit Match Circuit V CC1A V CC1B High-Power Amplifier Chain Low-Power Amplifier Chain MMIC ln Match Circuit DA 2 DA 1 PA 2 PA 1 V CC2A V CC2B 圖 15. 示意圖並聯功率放大器 19

20 圖 14. 測量 ACPRI 和 ACPR2 和 PAE 為低( LM ) 和高( hm )的功率模式在載波頻率為 1880MHz 的步階功率放大器。 圖 16. 測量增益和功率增加為低效率 ( PAE )和高功率模式在載波頻率為 1880MHz 的電路如圖 15 所示。 20 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

21 Future Handset PAs Multimode and Multiband PAs 21 High Band SPl Low Band DCS/PCS WCDMA HB GSM/EGSM V des 圖 17. 單一路徑,多模功率放大器架構。開關是用來改變不同的解 調器電路 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

22 Summary 22 由於功率放大器在手機使用手機電池供電操作, 高 PAE 是必不可少的電池壽命。同樣重要的是對熱 管理在手機上。線性是關鍵 3G 的應用或超越。此外, 成本,尺寸和可靠性也非常重要的考慮因素。 III - V 複合技術在今天仍然佔主導地位的手機市場,由於 其優越的性能,如 PAE 的,線性度和耐用性。矽 CMOS 技術是在追趕。進一步的性能改進和更新穎 的設計方法都需要置換優勢的 III - V 族化合物的技術。 矽材料製成的技術提供了很好的解決方案的單芯片 集成。矽的 CMOS 多模 / 多頻段手工訂功率放大器可 提供移動電話製造商以最低成本,最小尺寸,大多 數的功能。巴勒斯坦權力機構最終可能會集成收發 器和基帶芯片,以進一步縮小體積,降低成本。

23 圖 18.GSM 功率放大器模塊圖 19.WCDMA 功率放大器模塊 23 THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: MICROWAVE MAGAZINE,IEEE.ISSUE DATE :FEB.2010.VOLUME :11,ISSUE:1.ON PAGE(S):60-69.INSPEC ACCESSION NUMBER: DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER : /MMM DATE OF CURRENT VERSION :29 一月 2010.SPONSORED BY :IEEE MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES SOCIETY

24 [1] Motorola Graphic Library. (2004, July 26). DynaTAC 8000X portable cellular phone [Online]. Available: graphics [2] J. Schneider and J. Covello. (2009, May 26). Handset Market Share Wars, Goldman Sachs [Online]. Available: com/docs/ /Handsets [3] D. Pavlidis, “HBT vs. PHEMT vs. MESFET: What’s best and why,” GaAs Mantech Dig., [4] T. B. Nishimura, M. Tanomura, K. Azuma, K. Nakai, Y. Hasegawa, and H. Shimawaki, “A 50% efficiency InGaP/GaAs HBT power amplifier module for 1.95GHz wide-band CDMA handsets,” in Proc IEEE RFIC Symp., May 20–22, 2001, pp. 31–34. [5] S. A. Maas, B. L. Nelson, and D. L. Tait, "Intermodulation in heterojunction bipolar transistors," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 40, pp. 442–448, Mar [6] K.H. An, O. Lee, H. Kim, D. H. Lee, J Han, K. S. Yang, Y. Kim, J.J.Chang, W. Woo, C.H. Lee, H. Kim, and J. Laskar, “Power-combined transformer techniques for fully-integrated CMOS power amplifiers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1064–1075, May References

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26 [14] A. Bezooijen, A. V. Bezooijen, D. Prikhodko, and A. H. M. Roermund, “Biasing circuits for voltage controlled GSM power amplifiers,” in Proc. 11th GAAS Symp., Munich [15] P. McCambridge, X. Technologies, and B. Whitaker, “Combination closed loop and VCC power control for a GSM/GPRS PA,” High Frequency Electronics, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 16–22, June [16] T. Sowlati, D. Rozenblit, R. Pullela, M. Damgaard, E. Mccarthy, D. Koh, D. Riply, F. Balteanu, and I. Gheorghe, “Quad-band GSM/ GPRS/EDGE polar loop transmitter,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 2179–2189, Dec [17] G. Seegerer and G. Ulbricht, “EDGE transmitter with commercial GSM power amplifier using polar modulation with memory predistortion,” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., Long Beach, CA, June 12–17, 2005, pp. 1553–1556. [18] J. Chou, “Reducing the design complexity of next-generation handsets,” RF Design, pp. 28–32, Sept [19] T. Fowler, K. Burger, N. S. Cheng, A. Samelis, E. Enobakhare, and S. Rohlfing, “Efficiency improvement techniques at low power levels for linear CDMA and WCDMA power amplifiers,” in IEEE RFIC Symp. Dig., June 2002, pp.41–44. [20] Y. S. Noh, I. B. Yom, J. H. Park, and C. S. Park, “Adaptively linearized MMIC power amplifier for WCDMA applications,” Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 20, pp. 1237–1238, Sept [21] J. Nam, J. H. Shin, and B. Kim, “A handset power amplifier with high efficiency at low level using load-modulation technique,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 2639–2644, Aug

27 [22] T. Apel, Y. L. Tang, and O. Berger, “Switched Doherty power amplifiers for CDMA and WCDMA,” in IEEE RFIC Symp., Dig., June 2007, pp. 259–262. [23] J. Jung, U. Kim, J. Jeon, J. Kim, K. Kang, and Y. Kwon, “A new “series-type” Doherty amplifier for miniaturization,” in IEEE RFIC Symp., Dig., June 2005, pp. 259–262. [24] K. Narendra, L. Anand, P. Sangaran, S. Anbalagan, and G. Boeck, “Impedance adjustment for constant efficiency power amplifier applying stage bypass method,” in Proc. 14th IEEE Int. Conf. Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS‘07), Dec. 11–14, 2007, pp. 266–269. [25] G. Zhang, S. Chang, and Z. Alon, “A high performance balanced power amplifier and its integration into a front-end module at PCS band,” in Proc. IEEE RFIC Symp. Dig., June 2007, pp. 251–254. [26] Y. J. Jeon, H. W. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Ryu, J. Y. Choi, K. Kim, S. E. Sung, and B. Oh, “A highly efficiency CDMA power amplifier based on parallel amplification architecture,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 401–403, Sept [25] 8&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&biw=1032&bih=938 [26] TW&biw=1032&bih=938&tbs=isch:1&sa=1&q=2G%E6%89%8B%E6%A9%9F&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&g s_rfai= [27] TW&biw=1032&bih=938&tbs=isch:1&sa=1&q=3G%E6%89%8B%E6%A9%9F&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&g s_rfai= 27

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