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Panel II - Biofuels Alfred Szwarc IPC’s Fall Seminar “Sustainability in the Food & Agricultural Sector” Stratford-Upon-Avon, October 15 – 16, 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Panel II - Biofuels Alfred Szwarc IPC’s Fall Seminar “Sustainability in the Food & Agricultural Sector” Stratford-Upon-Avon, October 15 – 16, 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Panel II - Biofuels Alfred Szwarc IPC’s Fall Seminar “Sustainability in the Food & Agricultural Sector” Stratford-Upon-Avon, October 15 – 16, 2007

2 UNICA is the leading Brazilian association of sugar & ethanol producers Ethanol related UNICA’s goals: structure an international fuel ethanol market consolidate ethanol as a global energy commodity develop new applications and markets incentive adoption of best practices

3 The Industry in Brazil Sustainability Issues Trade Issues Concluding Remarks Ethanol from Sugar Cane

4 Sugar Cane is the prime ethanol feedstok in Brazil Semi-perennial plant: lasts for about 5 crop seasons with high yields and has many benefits over traditional row crops: less energy to plant & cultivate; root system reduces erosion & effective carbon uptake; relatively low defensive & fertilizer requirements; many varieties. Sugar Cane

5 Hydrolysis Sugar Cane: Source of Energy Hydrolysis 1/3 JUICE 1/3 BAGASSE 1/3 STRAW SUGAR (153 kg/t) ETHANOL CO-GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY MOLASSES 165 kg/t 15%humidity 276 kg/t 50% humidity Source: Unica. Cellulosic ethanol revolution: when will it take place? Straw: tops and leaves of sugar cane

6 Where is the Sugar Cane? Source: NIPE-UNICAMP, IBGE and CTC. Plant in construction or in project Current plant Amazon Rain Forest Wetlands Sugar cane Sugar Cane Expansion Area

7 Crop Season 2006/07 AC 0 % AM 0,05% PA 0,16 % RR 0 % RO 0 % MT 3,09 % AP 0 % MA 0,39% TO 0,04% GO 3,79 % BA 0,51 % PI 0,17% CE 0,01% RN, PE, PB, AL 10,9 % SE 0,27 % MG 6,82 % SP 62,05 % ES 0,68 % RJ 0,81 % PR 7,51 % SC 0 % RS 0,02 % MS 2,73 % Source: Unica Sugar Cane in Brazil

8 Availability of Arable Land Note: Area harvested in Arable land in equivalent potential. Source: FAO, Land Resource Potential and Constraints at Regional and Country Level (2000); FAO (2007). Prepared by ICONE.

9 Source: Sindag, IBGE, 2007 kg of active substance per hectare Agricultural Defensives Consumption Main Crops

10 Metric Ton per hectare Fertilizer Consumption Source: Anuário estatístico do setor de fertilizantes Associação Nacional para Difusão de Adubos-ANDA. São Paulo, p.34 Main Crops

11 Agriculture Related Soil Losses Fonte: Bertoni, et al. (1998), apud Donzelli, J.L. Erosão na cultura da cana-de-açúcar: situação e perspectivas. In: Macedo, I.de C. (org). A energia da cana- de-açúcar, São Paulo

12 Water Consumption In most of the Brazilian territory “Dry Farming” is the dominant practice because of sufficient rainfall. Irrigation in Brazil’s crop areas has been required in less than 4 M ha (< 6% of present agriculture land). Irrigation in sugar cane production is more widespread in the NE, however “Salvation Irrigation” and “Suplementary Irrigation” are adopted according to the need. Rational use of water in the sugar cane industry has increased considerably with reuse and recycle practices. Presently the average consumption of water in São Paulo State’s sugar cane industry is in the order of 1.8 m 3 /tonne of sugar cane (65% less than in 1997); ongoing efforts to reduce further this volume.

13 Ferti-irrigation Ferti-Irrigation with stllage (vinasse) helps to reduce use of water & chemical fertilizers and is a good practice to recover soil fertility

14 Ethanol Productivity Source IEA – International Energy Agency (2005), MTEC,, Icone, Unica. Liters per Hectare

15 End of Pre-Harvest Field Burning Note: 2007 refers to harvested area until August. Source: CTC, Unica. harvest % of non-burnt cane

16 Ethanol Productivity Source: CTC, Unica Agricultural and Industrial Gains

17 FeedstockRenewable Energy Output / Fossil Energy Input Wheat (EU)1.2 Cassava (Asia)1.2 Sugar Beet (EU)1.9 Corn (USA)1.3 – 1.8 Sugar Cane (Brazil)8.3 Source: F.O. Licht, Macedo, I et alii 2004, NREL 2002 Gasoline/Diesel0.8 (life-cicle fossil energy output/fossil energy input) (*) Current practice (**) Biorefinery concept using biogas to generate energy Energy Balance

18 Typical Sugar & Ethanol Plant in Brazil Bagasse Sugar cane field Distillery Sugar plant Ethanol storage tanks

19 bagasse electricity Sugar & Ethanol plants produce own thermal & electric energy using bagasse as a fuel and co-generation systems and sell excess electricity to the public grid Source: UNICA steam Bioenergy

20 Brazilian Ethanol Has the Lowest Cost Index Economic Feasibility Source: F.O.Licht, Unica

21 Jobs in the Sugar Cane Industry Source: MORAES, M.A.F. de. Número e qualidade dos empregos na agroindústria da cana-de-açúcar. In: A energia da cana-de-açúcar, Brazil, Formal Jobs

22 Source: MORAES, M.A.F. de. Número e qualidade dos empregos na agroindústria da cana-de-açúcar. In: A energia da cana-de-açúcar, Brazil, Formal Jobs Registration Rate

23 EthanolGasoline Sulfur content & sulfur compounds emission  $$ CO 2, CO, VOC and fine particles  NOx  Volatility /    Toxicity of fuel & combustion products  $$ Life-cycle Greenhouse impact  $$ Renewability  Biodegradability in soil & water  $$ Selected Fuel Characteristics Environmental Merits

24 Avoided GHG emissions in Brazil in 2003 due to the sugar cane industry are equivalent to the emission of GHG by Norway: ethanol substituting for gasoline: 27,5 M t CO2 eq. bagasse in sugar production: 5,7 M t CO2 eq. Source: Macedo, I et alii, 2004 Greenhouse Gas Emissions

25 Social Responsibility Programs Subject Programs People Engaged Culture Environment Sport Education Health Total Source: Unica Programs conducted by UNICA’s associates since 2004

26 2006/072010/112015/162020/21 Sugar Cane Production (M t) ,038 Cultivated area (M ha) Sugar (million t) Domestic Market Export Ethanol (billion liters) DomesticMarket Export Bioelectricity (MW)1,4003,30011,50014,400 Share (%) 3%6%15% Source: Unica, Copersucar and Cogen. Sugar Cane Industry Expansion Pasture Land in Brazil: 220 M ha. Expansion is being carried out mostly in reclaimed pasture land in the Center-South Region

27 Agroenergy Dilemma Rapid demand growth for ethanol, dry climate and strong demand from Asia have all been contributing to grain prices increase; While ethanol production has been increasing in Brazil sugar prices (sugar is food) have been low and stable; Debate has been fueled by a campaign against biofuels and ethanol has become the preferred scapegoat to justify price increase; Hunger has been due primarily to inadequate income distribution not food scarcity; Agriculture productivity is increasing and there is considerable arable land to be used; Cellulosic ethanol is a good promise; Energy X Food X Feed

28 Ethanol Sustainability  Based on the “Triple Bottom Line” requirements: SOCIAL, ECONOMICAL and ENVIRONMENTAL.  BENCHMARKED against fossil fuels.  UNIVERSAL : applied internationally to all producers, feedstocks & production processes.  Agreed within a MULTI-STAKEHOLDER negotiation process.  Based on a transparent process defined by CLEAR PRINCIPLES, BALANCED CRITERIA and OBJECTIVE INDICATORS.  VOLUNTARY : to reward those who invest in the process.  Applied PROGRESSIVELY. Certification Scheme

29 Ethanol International Trade Energy Security Diversification of Energy Sources & Energy Mix Environmental Issues (global warming, urban pollution) Rural Development Drivers Challenges Doha ? Reduction/Elimination of Trade Barriers More Producers & Consumers Harmonization of Product Quality Standards Closer Relationship with Stakeholders (motor industry, oil industry, fuel distributors, governments, NGO’s etc.) Wider Use of Futures Market Contracts (BM&F, NYBOT, CBOT etc.)

30 Growing popularity of bioethanol has created momentum for the development of an international market. Sound policies, environmental care, social responsibility, technological development, standards harmonization, trade barriers elimination and partnershipare key for the successful development of a well structured international market. Sound policies, environmental care, social responsibility, technological development, standards harmonization, trade barriers elimination and partnership are key for the successful development of a well structured international market. Concluding Remarks


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