Presentation on theme: "Food Safety in a Disaster Adapted by: Jason M. Behrends, Ph.D., CCS Mississippi State University."— Presentation transcript:
Food Safety in a Disaster Adapted by: Jason M. Behrends, Ph.D., CCS Mississippi State University
Course Work Module I –Facts About Food and Floods Module II –Preparing Food During a Power Failure Module III –Meal Preparation and Food Safety After a Flood
Module I –Is Food Safe to Eat? Contact with flood water Contact with water from broken pipes –Module 1 Identifies safe food
Module I Undamaged canned foods may be saved Cleaning methods –Label with permanent ink –Remove paper labels –Wash and scrub –Soak in bleach –Air dry Dispose can if contacted with waste –When in doubt, THROW IT OUT!
Module I Pantry/Fresh foods should be disposed if contacted by flood water. Flood water may carry sewage, oil, or other wastes. If left out, cold foods should be trashed.
Module I Water for Drinking, Cooking, or Cleaning –Consider all water unsafe! –Public Announcements –Boil Water to prevent contamination by: Viruses Bacteria Parasites –Contact local health department
Module I Discard these products –Fresh produce –Jarred foods –Containers with: Cork Wax Pap tops Peel off tops Wax seals –Cardboard boxes –Canned foods if: Dented Rusted Leaking Bulging Home-canned –Spices/seasonings –Open containers –Dry goods and stables
Module I Consumer Tips –Cold foods <40F –Hot foods >140F –Perishable foods out < 2hrs. –Keep it clean
Module I Power outage –2-3 hrs. in refrigerator –Freezer Full freezer – 2 days Half-full – 1 day Safe to refreeze with ice crystals
Module I Power Outage –Don’t rely on appearance –Bacteria multiplies after 2 hrs. at room temp. Discard these after two hours above 40F Raw meat Milk/cream, yogurt, soft cheese Cooked pasta Eggs Meat pizza/lunch meat Casseroles Soups Mayonnaise Cookie dough Cream-filled pastries
Module I Foods generally safe above 40F after a few days –Butter/margarine –Fresh fruits/vegetables –Dried fruits –Jelly, sauces –Hard cheeses Discard due to signs of mold or odor Higher temps. = Faster spoilage rate
Module I Clean the kitchen –Scrub and sanitize Chlorine solution –Sanitize dishes and glassware Boil metal utensils –Discard wooden and plastic utensils Including baby bottle nipples and pacifiers These absorb and hide bacteria –Wash linens in hot water Use chlorine bleach
Module II During Power Failure –Change cooking and eating habits No heat No refrigeration Limited water –Health risks from contaminated or spoiled food may increase
Module II When preparing food during a power outage, follow these guidelines: –Save Fuel –Conserve Water –Observe Health Precautions –Freezer and Refrigerator Food Safety
Module II Save Fuel –Cook time Choose foods that cook quickly Use no-cook (ready to eat) meals –Alternative cooking options Fireplace Hot plates Candle warmers Camp stoves
Module II Frozen foods –Do not cook unless enough heat is available –Require more heat than canned goods –Leave in freezer if power is off Canned foods –Commercially canned foods can be eaten from the can –Do not use home canned without boiling for ten minutes
Module II Conserve Water –Save liquids from canned vegetables. Use these liquids fro water in cooked dishes. –Drain and save juices from canned fruits. Use the juices for water in salads and drinks.
Module II Observe Health Precautions –Boil water used for cooking for 10 min. –Without refrigeration: Open only enough for one meal Some can be kept shortly without refrigeration Packaged survival foods are safe Do not serve foods that spoil easily –Ex: »Meats »Hash »Custards »Meat pies
Module II Do not use fresh milk –Canned milk keeps safe for hours –For baby’s milk pen a fresh can for each bottle –Use only disinfected water to mix powdered milk –W/o safe water, use canned or bottles juices
Module II Food Preparation –Eat foods in their original containers –This eliminates sanitation and dishwashing issues
Module II Food Safety of Frozen Foods –Anticipating power failure or flood Set refrigerator and freezer to coldest –If water enters freezer Dispose of all foods not sealed airtight
Module II Keep Freezer Closed! –Food may last 2-3 days –Well insulated 4 cu.ft.freezer food will not spoil in <3 days –12-36 cu. Ft. freezer food will not spoil in <5 days or longer –Open freezer only to move food or add dry ice.
Module II Thawing Rate –When closed most freezers will stay below 40F for 3 days –Thawing rate depends on: Amount in freezer Type of food Temperature of food Insulation of the freezer Size of freezer Do not put hot foods in freezer –Cover and dispose of in 2 hrs.
Module II Emergency measures –KEEP DOOR CLOSED –Move food to locker plant if possible Check with plant Wrap and store in cooler Rush food to plant Make preparations with plant in advance of an emergency
Module II If locker plant is not available –Leave in freezer and cover freezer –Do not cover air vents –Use dry ice –Can the food
Module II When food has thawed –Food quality is diminished –Red meats are affected less –Food may be refrozen if ice crystals are present –If temp. > 40F, throw away
Module II Treating thawed foods: –Fruits Refreeze if still good Fruit starting to ferment is safe –Frozen dinners Do not refreeze if thawed
Module II Vegetables –Do not refreeze if thawed –Bacteria multiply rapidly –Spoilage begins before odor is present –Refreeze only if ice crystals are present in package –When in doubt, THROW IT OUT!
Module II Meat and Poultry –Unsafe when they start to spoil –Discard if odor is present –Discard above 40F –Discard stuffed poultry –Immediately cooked unspoiled meat or poultry –Cooked meat can be refrozen
Module II Fish and Shellfish –Extremely perishable –Do not refreeze unless ice crystals are present throughout
Module II Dry Ice in a Power Failure –Helps prevent spoiling –More dry ice = longer the food stays frozen –Expensive/ hard to find –Locate a source before a disaster –Can be located from: Dairy Cold storage warehouse Power company can locate a source
Module II Dry Ice Usage –Handling and usage guidelines: Wear gloves 2-3 lbs./cu.ft. Move products from freezing compartment to storage area. Put board or cardboard on top of food Put dry ice on top of boards
Module II Dry Ice Usage –Cover Freezer –Do not block air vents –Open windows or doors to let gas escape
Module II Safety of Refrigerated Food After a Power Failure –Meats, poultry, and seafood should be left out no longer than 2 hrs. –If leaving home without ice Take cold salad ingredients Eat upon arrive Throw leftovers away
Module II Safety of Refrigerated Food After a Power Failure –Cook all unspoiled meat immediately and keep above 140F –Large pieces will not spoil as easily –Sausage is easily contaminated –Raw chopped meats spoil quickly Dispose after 12 hours with no power Do not trust your sense of smell
Module II Safety of Refrigerated Food After a Power Failure –Milk spoils quickly Throw it out Use for baking –Creamed foods and chopped meats spoil quickly and can easily cause foodborne illness. –Any product high in protein and moisture should not be transported without ice
Module III Food Preparation Safety After a Flood –Contaminated foods –Food to discard –Other packaged foods –Foods to keep –Disinfecting cans and glass jars –How much bleach to use for purifying water –Flooded garden produce –Immature produce –Mature produce –Produce disinfecting measures
Module III Flood-Contaminated Foods –Floodwaters carry: Silt Raw sewage Oil Chemical wastes Bacteria –Thoroughly examine all food When in doubt, throw it out!
Module III Food to Discard –Opened containers –Unopened jars with waxy seals –Seasonings/spices –Flour, grains, and sugars –Paper box products –Dented cans
Module III Food to Discard –Do not try to save any of these foods: Jams sealed with paraffin Containers with non-sealed lids Bottled beverages Foil packages Fresh fruits and vegetables Home canned foods
Module III Other Packaged Foods –Metal drums/wooden barrels Examine for leaks Destroy containers –Examine foil or cellophane containers Discard if : –Caked inside –Stained –Any evidence of water contamination
Module III Food to Keep –Safe food: Undamaged tin cans Boil cans for extra safety Potatoes –Wash and sanitize –Dry and peel before cooking Citrus Fruits –Wash and sanitize –Peel and heat to 160F for 10 min. Apples and fruits that can be sanitized and sealed
Module III Disinfecting Cans and Commercial Glass Jars –Must be sanitized and washed –Inspect and destroy if damaged –Remove labels and all silt –Soak 15 min. in cold chlorine solution –Remove and rinse –Store to avoid further contamination
Module III Other ways to disinfect cans and jars –Immerse in sterilizing solution and rinse –Boil for 10 min., dry and relabel NOTE: Chlorine and other sterilizing solutions are poisonous. Use extreme caution. How much bleach to use for purifying water. Amount of chlorine in bleach Volume of bleach to add to one quart of water Volume of bleach to add to one gallon of water 2%2 tsp2 tbsp plus 2 tsp 4%1 tsp1 tbsp plus 1 tsp 5%¾ tsp1 tbsp 6%½ ts[2 tbsp
Module III Flooded Garden Produce –Some produce will be unsafe to eat –Safety depends on Kind of produce Maturity of produce Time of year Flooding severity Flood duration Water bacterial content Probability of other contamination
Module III Immature Produce –More than two weeks immature at the flooding time should be safe by ripening time –Disinfect and cook for additional safety before eating
Module III Mature Produce –Avoid using if possibly contaminated unless: They can be disinfected Peeled Thoroughly cooked
Module III Some fruits and vegetable are more susceptible than others to bacterial contamination. –Leafy vegetables are highly susceptible to bacterial contamination –Do not pick contaminated strawberries –Root, bulb, and tuber crops are less likely to be contaminated Disinfect, peel and cook before eating
Module III Thoroughly wash, disinfect, and cook any produce before eating. –Wash in strong detergent solution –Soak min. in chlorine solution –Rinse thoroughly –Peel and cook