Presentation on theme: "Cell Structure & Function"— Presentation transcript:
Cell Structure & Function http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html
History of Cell Discovery
the basic unit of structure and function in living things Cells are
Robert Hooke 1635 – 1703
Hooke was one of the first people to observe cells
He published a book, Micrographia, in 1665. It had ideas about: the life cycle of mosquitoes origin of craters on the moon fossils and drawings of microscopic things.
Thin slices of cork from the cork tree. (tiny rooms – cells) He was really looking at dead cells – what was left was the cell wall.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
Anton van Leeuwenhoek’s simple microscope
He looked at: drops of lake water scrapings from gums and teeth water in rain gutters He saw tiny moving organisms and called the wretched beasties “animalcules.”
Bacteria from the mouth
200 years later…
Matthias Schleiden (1804-1881) German botanist 1838 he suggested that all plants are made of cells
Theodor Schwann (1810-1882) German zoologist 1839 suggested that animals, not just plants are made of cells
Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) German doctor 1855 “all cells come from cells”
The work of these last three men led to…
The Cell Theory
Robert Hooke 1665 First to see “cells” under a microscope that he created.
Anton Van Leewenhoek 1674 One of the first scientist to observe living things in pond water with a single lens microscope
Robert Brown- 1831 Discovered the cell nucleus
Matthias Schleiden - 1838 First to discover that plants are made up of cells
Theodor Schwann Discovered that all animals are made up of cells
Rudolph Virchow Virchow's many discoveries include cells in bone and connective tissue In 1855 he published his now-famous aphorism omnis cellula e cellula ("every cell stems from another cell"). aphorism
The Cell Theory All living things are made up of one or more cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. New cells are produced from existing cells.
The cell theory states: All living things are made of one or more cells
The cell theory states: Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things
The cell theory states: Living cells only come from other living cells
The Cell Theory The modern tenets of the Cell Theory include: 1. All known living things are made up of cells. 2. The cell is structural & functional unit of all living things. 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells by division. (Spontaneous Generation does not occur). 4. Cells contains hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell during cell division. 5. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition. 6. All energy flow (metabolism & biochemistry) of life occurs within cells.
Cell Theory All living things are made up of one or more cells. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function -smallest working units of all living things. All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.
Definition of Cell A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.
Two Types of Cells Prokaryotic Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic Do not have structures surrounded by membranes Few internal structures One-celled organisms, Bacteria http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/prokaryotic_cells.html
Prokaryotic Cells “Simple” Cells Do not contain a nucleus. Does contain a cell membrane and cytoplasm. Example: Bacterial cell
Eukaryotic Cells “Complex” Cell Contains a nucleus and several membrane bound organelles in addition to cytoplasm and a cell membrane.
Eukaryotic Contain organelles surrounded by membranes Most living organisms PlantAnimal http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html
Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell Bacteria
Cell Membrane Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell Double layer http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Cell Wall Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria Supports & protects cells http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Inside the Cell
Nucleus Directs cell activities Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane Contains genetic material - DNA
Nuclear Membrane Surrounds nucleus Made of two layers Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Chromosomes In nucleus Made of DNA Contain instructions for traits & characteristics http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Nucleolus Inside nucleus Contains RNA to build proteins http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Cytoplasm Gel-like mixture Surrounded by cell membrane Contains hereditary material
Endoplasmic Reticulum Moves materials around in cell Smooth type: lacks ribosomes Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Ribosomes Each cell contains thousands Make proteins Found on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Mitochondria Produces energy through chemical reactions – breaking down fats & carbohydrates Controls level of water and other materials in cell Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Golgi Bodies Protein 'packaging plant' Move materials within the cell Move materials out of the cell http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Lysosome Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Vacuoles Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal Contains water solution Help plants maintain shape http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Chloroplast Usually found in plant cells Contains green chlorophyll Where photosynthesis takes place http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html