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Cell Structure & Function

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Structure & Function"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Structure & Function

2 History of Cell Discovery

3 the basic unit of structure and function in living things Cells are

4 Robert Hooke 1635 – 1703

5 Hooke was one of the first people to observe cells

6 He published a book, Micrographia, in 1665. It had ideas about: the life cycle of mosquitoes origin of craters on the moon fossils and drawings of microscopic things.


8 Thin slices of cork from the cork tree. (tiny rooms – cells) He was really looking at dead cells – what was left was the cell wall.

9 Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)

10 Anton van Leeuwenhoek’s simple microscope

11 He looked at: drops of lake water scrapings from gums and teeth water in rain gutters He saw tiny moving organisms and called the wretched beasties “animalcules.”

12 Bacteria from the mouth

13 200 years later…

14 Matthias Schleiden (1804-1881) German botanist 1838 he suggested that all plants are made of cells

15 Theodor Schwann (1810-1882) German zoologist 1839 suggested that animals, not just plants are made of cells

16 Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) German doctor 1855 “all cells come from cells”

17 The work of these last three men led to…

18 The Cell Theory

19 Robert Hooke 1665 First to see “cells” under a microscope that he created.

20 Anton Van Leewenhoek 1674 One of the first scientist to observe living things in pond water with a single lens microscope

21 Robert Brown- 1831 Discovered the cell nucleus

22 Matthias Schleiden - 1838 First to discover that plants are made up of cells

23 Theodor Schwann Discovered that all animals are made up of cells

24 Rudolph Virchow Virchow's many discoveries include cells in bone and connective tissue In 1855 he published his now-famous aphorism omnis cellula e cellula ("every cell stems from another cell"). aphorism

25 The Cell Theory All living things are made up of one or more cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. New cells are produced from existing cells.

26 The cell theory states: All living things are made of one or more cells

27 The cell theory states: Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things

28 The cell theory states: Living cells only come from other living cells

29 The Cell Theory The modern tenets of the Cell Theory include: 1. All known living things are made up of cells. 2. The cell is structural & functional unit of all living things. 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells by division. (Spontaneous Generation does not occur). 4. Cells contains hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell during cell division. 5. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition. 6. All energy flow (metabolism & biochemistry) of life occurs within cells.

30 Cell Theory All living things are made up of one or more cells. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function -smallest working units of all living things. All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.

31 Definition of Cell A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.

32 Two Types of Cells Prokaryotic Eukaryotic

33 Prokaryotic Do not have structures surrounded by membranes Few internal structures One-celled organisms, Bacteria


35 Prokaryotic Cells “Simple” Cells Do not contain a nucleus. Does contain a cell membrane and cytoplasm. Example: Bacterial cell


37 Eukaryotic Cells “Complex” Cell Contains a nucleus and several membrane bound organelles in addition to cytoplasm and a cell membrane.


39 Eukaryotic Contain organelles surrounded by membranes Most living organisms PlantAnimal

40 Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell Bacteria

41 “Typical” Animal Cell /~ acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gif

42 “Typical” Plant Cell

43 Plant vs. Animal Cells

44 Cell Parts Organelles

45 Surrounding the Cell

46 Cell Membrane Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell Double layer

47 Cell Wall Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria Supports & protects cells

48 Inside the Cell

49 Nucleus Directs cell activities Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane Contains genetic material - DNA

50 Nuclear Membrane Surrounds nucleus Made of two layers Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus

51 Chromosomes In nucleus Made of DNA Contain instructions for traits & characteristics

52 Nucleolus Inside nucleus Contains RNA to build proteins

53 Cytoplasm Gel-like mixture Surrounded by cell membrane Contains hereditary material

54 Endoplasmic Reticulum Moves materials around in cell Smooth type: lacks ribosomes Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface

55 Ribosomes Each cell contains thousands Make proteins Found on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell

56 Mitochondria Produces energy through chemical reactions – breaking down fats & carbohydrates Controls level of water and other materials in cell Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates

57 Golgi Bodies Protein 'packaging plant' Move materials within the cell Move materials out of the cell

58 Lysosome Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes

59 Vacuoles Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal Contains water solution Help plants maintain shape

60 Chloroplast Usually found in plant cells Contains green chlorophyll Where photosynthesis takes place

61 Cell Organelles gr11/organell.htm gr11/organell.htm bi3a1/cells/cellquiz.htm bi3a1/cells/cellquiz.htm

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