12 Nucleus Directs cell activities Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membraneContains genetic material - DNA
13 Nuclear Membrane Surrounds nucleus Made of two layers Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus
14 Chromosomes In nucleus Made of DNA Contain instructions for traits & characteristics
15 Nucleolus Inside nucleus Contains RNA to build proteins
16 Cytoplasm Gel-like mixture Surrounded by cell membrane Contains hereditary material
17 Endoplasmic Reticulum Moves materials around in cellSmooth type: lacks ribosomesRough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface
18 Ribosomes Each cell contains thousands Make proteins Found on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell
19 MitochondriaProduces energy through chemical reactions – breaking down fats & carbohydratesControls level of water and other materials in cellRecycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
20 Golgi Bodies Protein 'packaging plant' Move materials within the cell Move materials out of the cell
21 Lysosome Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removalCell breaks down if lysosome explodes
22 Vacuoles Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal Contains water solutionHelp plants maintain shape
41 Cell Specializationtics/cellspecialization/cell specialization is an adaptation to do a particular job in a cellExamples: lung cells, heart cells, muscle cells, blood cells, bone cells
42 Stem CellsStem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialized cell types.Two Types of Stem Cells:Adult stem cells exist throughout the body after embryonic development and are found inside of different types of tissue.Embryonic stem cells are derived from a four- or five- day-old human embryo that is in the blastocyst phase of development.
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