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Cells Animal and Plant Cells. Cell Structure & Function

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Presentation on theme: "Cells Animal and Plant Cells. Cell Structure & Function"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells Animal and Plant Cells

2 Cell Structure & Function

3 Two Types of Cells ProkaryoticProkaryotic EukaryoticEukaryotic

4 Prokaryotic Do not have structures surrounded by membranes Few internal structures One-celled organisms, Bacteria

5 Eukaryotic Contain organelles surrounded by membranes Most living organisms PlantAnimal

6 “ Typical ” Animal Cell /~ acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gif

7 Cell Parts Organelles

8 Surrounding the Cell

9 Cell Membrane Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell Double layer

10 Cell Wall Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria Supports & protects cells

11 Inside the Cell

12 Nucleus Directs cell activities Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane Contains genetic material - DNA

13 Nuclear Membrane Surrounds nucleus Made of two layers Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus

14 Chromosomes In nucleus Made of DNA Contain instructions for traits & characteristics

15 Nucleolus Inside nucleus Contains RNA to build proteins

16 Cytoplasm Gel-like mixture Surrounded by cell membrane Contains hereditary material

17 Endoplasmic Reticulum Moves materials around in cell Smooth type: lacks ribosomes Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface

18 Ribosomes Each cell contains thousands Make proteins Found on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell

19 Mitochondria Produces energy through chemical reactions – breaking down fats & carbohydrates Controls level of water and other materials in cell Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates

20 Golgi Bodies Protein 'packaging plant' Move materials within the cell Move materials out of the cell

21 Lysosome Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes

22 Vacuoles Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal Contains water solution Help plants maintain shape

23 “ Typical ” Plant Cell

24 Chloroplast Usually found in plant cells Contains green chlorophyll Where photosynthesis takes place

25 Cell Division

26 MITOSIS

27 Mitosis The process of cell division which results in the production of two daughter cells from a single parent cell. The daughter cells are identical to one another and to the original parent cell.

28 Mitosis can be divided into stages Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase & Cytokinesis

29 Interphase The cell prepares for division Animal Cell DNA replicated Organelles replicated Cell increases in size

30 Interphase Photographs from:

31 Prophase The cell prepares for nuclear division Animal Cell Packages DNA into chromosomes

32 Prophase Photographs from:

33 Metaphase The cell prepares chromosomes for division Animal Cell Chromosomes line up at the center of the cell Spindle fibers attach from daughter cells to chromosomes at the centromere

34 Metaphase Photographs from:

35 Anaphase The chromosomes divide Animal Cell Spindle fibers pull chromosomes apart ½ of each chromosome (called chromotid) moves to each daughter cell

36 Anaphase Photographs from:

37 Telophase The cytoplasm divides Animal Cell DNA spreads out 2 nuclei form Cell wall pinches in to form the 2 new daughter cells

38 Telophase Animal Cell Plant Cell Photographs from:

39 Mitosis Animation

40 Animal Mitosis -- Review Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Interphase

41 Cell Specialization tics/cellspecialization/ tics/cellspecialization/ cell specialization is an adaptation to do a particular job in a cell Examples: lung cells, heart cells, muscle cells, blood cells, bone cells

42 Stem Cells Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialized cell types. Two Types of Stem Cells: Adult stem cells exist throughout the body after embryonic development and are found inside of different types of tissue. Embryonic stem cells are derived from a four- or five- day-old human embryo that is in the blastocyst phase of development.


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