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Chapter 21 Enhancing Value through Ongoing Management McGraw-Hill/IrwinCopyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 Enhancing Value through Ongoing Management McGraw-Hill/IrwinCopyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21 Enhancing Value through Ongoing Management McGraw-Hill/IrwinCopyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 21-2 Why is Management so Important? Making good property acquisition decisions is important because they cannot be undone easily or costlessly But what about after property is acquired?

3 21-3 Why is Management so Important? Ownership of RE puts investors in business of providing rental services—which is extremely management intensive. Owners-or their agents-must repeatedly make management decisions that affect value of the property & investors’ return on equity.

4 21-4 Compare to Public Stock and Bond Markets Unlike many publicly traded stock & bond investments, the going-in & going-out transaction costs of commercial RE investments are high Thus, IRRs are usually maximized by holding assets for longer periods

5 21-5 Compare to Public Stock & Bond Mkts Also, majority of RE returns come from periodic net rental income, not from price appreciation Thus……  commercial RE returns are significantly affected by how well ongoing asset mgmt function is performed

6 21-6 Two Categories of Management Decisions Those that deal with day-to-day operations  i.e. “property” management Those that deal with the physical, financial, or ownership structure  i.e. “asset” management

7 21-7 Functions of a Property Manager Marketing the property  Leases are perishable assets  Who should lease the property Apartment properties? Office buildings & shopping centers?  Independent broker  In-house leasing agent  Property manager  Independent brokers usually paid on a commission basis Commissions equal a % of the face amount of lease

8 21-8 Functions of a Property Manager Selecting tenants  Importance of “willingness & ability to pay”  Credit tenants Vast majority of potential tenants are not credit tenants  Tenant mix Signing leases Collecting rent  Expenses paid out of rental income

9 21-9 Functions of a Property Manager Repairing & maintaining property  Objective? Maximization of market value  Comprehensive maintenance program Importance of being proactive Aids tenant relations  Maintenance as an investment decision PV of benefits versus cost Qualitative vs. quantitative

10 21-10 Functions of a Property Manager Communicating with owners Maintaining tenant relations Complying with landlord-tenant laws  Residential vs. commercial

11 21-11 Establishes a more equitable relationship between landlords and tenants All States Have Landlord/Tenant Laws Designed to Protect Residential Tenants

12 21-12 Landlord and Tenant Relations Landlord’s obligation to make repairs Tenant’s obligation to preserve the premises Landlord’s right to inspect Landlord’s right of entry

13 21-13 Landlord’s Access to Unit Landlords may enter a premises to : Make repairs Inspect Show the unit Reasonable notice: 12-hour lead time 7:30am– 8:00pm

14 21-14 Emergency Access Smoke/fire Water leak Security system Storm damage Notice is not required for emergencies

15 21-15 Property Management Agreements

16 21-16 Agency Relationship Management contract creates an agency relationship between owner (principal) & manager (agent) Empowers manager/agent to serve as owner’s fiduciary—words & actions of manager are binding on owner. Agent has a legal obligation to exercise care in managing both money & property for owner

17 21-17 Property Management Fees Typical property management fee? What about incentive compatibility? What about basing management fee on net rental income?

18 21-18 Who Hires Property Managers?

19 21-19 Professional Associations and Designations Many professional & trade organizations exist  Institute of Real Estate Management (IREM)  Building Owners & Managers Association International (BOMA)  National Association of Residential Property Managers  International Facilities Management Association

20 21-20 Professional Associations & Designations Provide professional education & work to enhance status of professional property managers.  promote conduct & performance standards  offer professional designations

21 21-21 Professional Associations & Designations IREM  Certified property manager (CPM)  Accredited resident manager (ARM)—for those specializing in apartment buildings  Accredited management organization (AMO)— awarded to management companies

22 21-22 Professional Associations & Designations BOMA  Programs aimed primarily at owners & managers of office buildings  Real property administrator (RPA)

23 21-23 Property Management: Just One Aspect of Asset Management

24 21-24 The Development of a Profession Asset management is a relatively new profession Prior to 1970s, institutional investors did not actively invest in commercial RE Vast majority of commercial RE was held by wealthy families & private partnerships (LPs)  LPs managed by “managing equity investor”

25 21-25 The Development of a Profession In the 1970s, institutional investors began investing in commercial RE  Perceived value as a diversifier These new investment funds transformed commercial RE markets beyond recognition New breed of 3 rd party asset managers (investment advisors) was required to “hold the hands” of institutional investors  i.e., take on, in a fiduciary capacity, role of managing equity investor

26 21-26 Asset Management Functions Before property is acquired, asset manager:  Finds specific assets in which owner/client can invest  Researches/arranges financing  Negotiates acquisition price  Oversee due diligence & closing process These activities are required because investors end up with controlling interests in “whole” assets Compare to managers of stock portfolios!

27 21-27 Asset Management Functions After property is acquired, asset manager must:  Monitor & control operating performance Site visits, CAPX budgets, property tax assessments  Report value-enhancing opportunities for rehabilitation, historic preservation, modernization, & conversion  Suggest strategies for lowering owner’s cost of capital  Be aware of opportunities to restructure equity ownership  Continually reassess buy vs. hold decision

28 21-28 Performance Evaluation & Compensation During 1970s & 1980s, investment/asset managers’ compensation based on % of assets under management (AUM)  0.50 to 1.50% Policy produces clear agency problem  Managers have incentive to acquire & hold assets for principal  Going-in IRRs may not be paramount

29 21-29 Recent Trends? Industry is moving to including performance- based compensation for asset managers Fee tied directly to portfolio performance Owner & manager must agree on the performance benchmark  actual performance of agent typically evaluated over period of management contract (typically 3-5 years)

30 21-30 Managing Corporate RE Assets Non real estate corporations own more than $2 trillion in RE  Storage facilities, retail outlets, warehouses, office buildings, etc. These assets often account for 25-40% of total assets of large industrial firms. Historically, little effort has been expended to manage these assets

31 21-31 Managing Corporate RE Assets Corporations beginning to pay more attention  In-house management personal  Asset management consultants

32 21-32 Managing Corporate RE Assets Issues:  Site analysis  Buy vs. lease decisions  Acquisitions and dispositions  Portfolio refinancing  Facility management  Property tax appeals  Sale and leaseback arrangements

33 End of Chapter 21

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