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It’s Worse Than We Thought Global Warming Prepared for Philazine by Philip Woodard – 2008 – all rights reserved ©

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1 It’s Worse Than We Thought Global Warming Prepared for Philazine by Philip Woodard – 2008 – all rights reserved ©

2 Free Template from Conservative Estimates Scientists are temperamentally conservative Almost all their original estimates about the effects of global warming have underplayed the actual measured consequences When their original estimates have been re- measured against actual changes, the effects have most often been more dire than they originally predicted

3 Free Template from NASA’s Dr. James Hansen One of the world's leading climate scientists warned in October 2008 that the EU and its international partners must urgently rethink their targets for cutting carbon dioxide He says scientists have grossly underestimated the scale of the problem “The target we have all been aiming for is a disaster - a guaranteed disaster” Arctic Ice is melting 20 years ahead of schedule

4 Free Template from Effects Will Last for a 1000 Years A 2009 study found that changes in surface temperature, rainfall, and sea level are largely irreversible If carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions are stopped at around 450 ppm, the effects will last at least 1,000 years issues

5 Free Template from Ocean Acidification Too much CO 2 in the oceans leads to acidification; marine life starts to die This so-called 'tipping point' had been predicted to occur when atmospheric CO 2 levels hit 550 parts per million, around the year 2060 Current thinking has revised that tipping point to far lower atmospheric CO 2 levels – around 450 ppm: the goal set by many scientists to try to attain.

6 Free Template from Two More Examples Nitrogen trifluoride, a green house gas that traps about 17,000 times more heat than carbon dioxide, wasn’t even counted in the 1997 Kyoto protocols –A gas from the manufacture of liquid crystal displays –2006 estimate was 1,200 metric tons in the atmosphere –2008 estimate was 5,400 metric tons in the atmosphere NASA scientist says melting ice will cause a 50 cm rise by 2100 –Rate of ice loss from Greenland has tripled since 2004

7 Free Template from Current Estimates – 6 Degrees Hotter by A one degree increase –The Great Plains from Texas to the Canadian prairies become a desert: Sahara-like with no agriculture –Resurgent North African monsoons bring more rainfall to the Sahara (Chad, Nigeria and Cameroon) –No snow or ice on Mt. Kilimanjaro or the Alps –Hotter than the one degree rise at both poles A two degree increase –European summers routinely as hot as record breaker, 2003 –Southern Mediterranean looses one fifth of its rainfall –Greenland ice sheet completes its melting; Andean and Peruvian glaciers melt –Sierra Nevada snow pack looses 75 percent of its water –30 percent of animal species vanish from habitat loss

8 Free Template from Glaciers

9 Free Template from Current Estimates – 6 Degrees Hotter by 2100 A three degree increase –Guaranteed if we don’t significantly reduce atmospheric carbon by 2018 –Amazonian basin dries up – no longer a jungle but a desert This is a tipping point bringing about by itself another one degree rise –Much of the planet becomes uninhabitable – Southern Africa and Australia are barren deserts 100s of millions or billions of refugees migrate north looking for food Winter flooding threatens low-lying Western European regions A four degree increase –Arctic and Siberian permafrosts melt Another tipping point bringing about another one degree rise all by itself –Italy, Spain, Greece and Turkey have Saharan like climates –Sea levels rise by between 9 and 88 cm (3.5 inches to 35 inches) A 36-inch increase in sea levels would swamp every city on the East Coast of the United States, from Miami to Boston

10 Free Template from Warming Forecasts

11 Free Template from Current Estimates – 6 Degrees Hotter by 2100 A six degree increase –Climate like the Permian period, 251 million years ago, 95% of species go extinct –Soil erosion removes most the planet’s plant cover –Deserts in central Europe and near the Arctic Circle A five degree increase –Crocodiles and turtles in the Canadian high Arctic –Tropical breadfruit trees grow on the coast of Greenland –Forests grow in central Antarctica

12 Free Template from Polar Ice Caps – The Big Deal Sea level rise: with 5,773,000 cubic miles of water in ice caps, glaciers, and permanent snow, a complete melt means the seas would rise about 230 feet Ocean desalinization: fresh water will make oceans less salty, changing ocean currents and atmospheric temperatures Species die off: Only the most adaptable of Arctic species will survive No ice means no reflection: darker colored ocean water will absorb more sunlight, further warming the Earth

13 Free Template from Glacier Melting Since 1970

14 Free Template from What We Know for Sure Global surface temperatures have increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the 100 years ending in 2005±CF

15 Free Template from Global surface temperatures have spiked since the Industrial Revolution in 1800 Earth’s Temperature: Last 2000 Years

16 Free Template from Surface temperatures and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations correlate Consensus Cause

17 Free Template from No, Not Sun Spots

18 Free Template from Atmospheric Gases From 1750 to 2000 (about 250 years) a half- trillion tons of carbon were burned From 2000 to 2040 (about 40 years) another half trillion tons are scheduled to burn

19 Free Template from Who’s to Blame Green House Gases by Country

20 Free Template from Current U.S. Energy Consumption

21 Free Template from World Oil Consumption

22 Free Template from What’s Happened by 2009 – Part One One in eight bird species, or 1,226 of almost 10,000 bird species, are at risk of extinction marked highest ever summer temperatures in the Arctic -- 9 ◦ F or 5 ◦ C above historic averages 28 of Yosemite’s animal species are moving their range to higher elevations – 1600 feet higher 150,000 people, says the World Health Organization, die every year by climate-change-related issues Greenland and Antarctic Ice sheets are melting Terrestrial carbon is being released from the permafrost regions Methane hydrates are being released from coastal sediments

23 Free Template from Temperature Changes

24 Free Template from Historic Draughts

25 Free Template from What’s Happened by 2009 – Part Two Glaciers not at the North and South poles have decreased by 50% since the end of the 19th century Summer lasts longer in the Northern hemisphere – just in the last five years –High temperatures in October are about 1 degree above their historic averages –In September high temperatures are almost 2 degrees above their historic averages Precipitation is increasing, particularly at northern mid-high latitudes with much of the increase coming in more frequent heavy rainfall events

26 Free Template from Spruce Trees Break Thru Arctic Tundra

27 Free Template from What’s Happened by 2009 – Part Three Mean sea level has been rising at an average rate of 1.7 mm/year (plus or minus 0.5mm) over the past 100 years. Since 1993, sea has been rising 3.3 mm/year: doubling the average increase Average global temperatures have increased 1.8 ◦ F or 1 ◦ C over the past 100 years Northern Hemisphere snow cover has remained below average since 1987 and has decreased by about 10% since 1966 Lake Chad, which supports 20 million people, has shrunk to 5% of its size in 1973

28 Free Template from Current Patterns of Warming

29 Free Template from What’s Happened by 2009 – Part Four The nine hottest years on record have all occurred in the last eleven years –The warmest year on record – 2005 Inhabitants of some small and low island countries are abandoning their islands –Carteret Islands are off the coast of Bougainville, Papua New Guinea. 2,600 people are forced to move Parts of Australia, China, the Middle East, Argentina, California, and Texas are experiencing droughts simultaneously In American south west, fire frequency is up by 400 percent and land burned is up by 650 percent since

30 Free Template from Current Patterns of Warming

31 Free Template from What’s Happened by 2009 – Part Five One fifth of all the coral reefs in the ocean have been lost to warming and acidification 2100 sea level rise now pegged at 150 cm (60 inches or 5 five) An irreversible change that will last for more than a thousand years Arctic ice shrank to 1.74 million square miles, 0.86 million square miles below the average from 1979 to 2000 – 40% loss, just since 2004 Trees in Western U.S. are dying at twice their historic rate

32 Free Template from What’s Happened by 2009 – Part Six End of the traditional African monsoon rains have helped spark the killing in Darfur Because of increase in storms, home insurance on U.S. Gulf Coast is much more expensive Spread of dengue fever and other tropical maladies, such as malaria, borne by mosquitoes is increasing Northern Europe’s grape growing regions are changing characteristics of their wine

33 Free Template from What’s Happened by 2009 – Part Seven Australia’s Great Barrier Reef hit its tipping point in 1990 –Shrinking ever since –Gone by 2050 Ten ice shelves have receded or collapsed around the Antarctic peninsula in the past 50 years –In total, about 25,000 sq km of ice shelves have been lost, changing maps of Antarctica – the shelves had been in place for at least 10,000 years –Antarctica's ice sheets contain enough water to raise world sea levels by 57 meters

34 Free Template from What’s Happened by 2009 – Part Eight Chacaltaya, an 18,000 year-old glacier, tucked away at 17,388 feet above sea level has completely melted The level of Lake Mead, Nevada – U.S. largest reservoir has dropped by 100 feet since 2000 In U.S. average and peak wind speeds have noticeably slowed since 1973, especially in the Midwest and the East

35 Free Template from What’s Happened by 2009 – Part Nine The Alps have been dividing themselves into two distinct regions: a wet one in the north and a dry one in the south Tibet is having its worst drought in the last 30 years Carbon Dioxide levels in the atmosphere are the highest in the last 2.1 million years Band of tropical rainfall has been moved steadily north for the last 300 years (1.8 km per year)

36 Free Template from What’s Happened by 2009 – Part Ten Carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere highest for the last 20 million years

37 Free Template from One Key is Conservation Escalators in the U.S. are estimated to use 2.6 billion kilowatt hours per year, equivalent to powering 375,000 houses at a cost of roughly U.S. $260 million

38 Free Template from Endnotes 3.1 Ed Pilkington, “Climate Target is Not Radical Enough,” The Guardian, April 7, 2008Ed Pilkington 4.1 “Global Warming is Irreversible,” BBC website, January 27, 2009 BACK BACK 6.1 Mark Lynas, “Six Steps to Hell,” The Guardian, April 23, 2007 BACKMark Lynas BACK 19.1 Alister Dolye, “Birds' Decline Shows Wider DamageAlister Dolye Rueters News, October 9, 2008 BACK BACK 19.2 Doug Struck, “Climate Change Drives Disease To New Territory, Washington Post, May 5, 2006 BACKDoug Struck BACK 17.1 Green Facts web site, Update 2007 BACKGreen Facts BACK 17.1 Munichre, web site, “Retreat of the Glaciers,” 2008 BACKMunichre BACK 17.2 Shaun McKinnon, “It's Official: Summer's Heat Lingers Longer into Fall,” Arizona Republic, Oct. 25, 2008 BACKShaun McKinnon BACK 21.1 Nature Conservancy, website, “Climate Change Impacts,” Oct. 25, 2008 BACKNature Conservancy BACK 21.1 Scientific American, website, “Ten Places Affect by Climate Change,” Dec. 23, 2008 BACKScientific American, BACK


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