6Reginald Rose 1920-2002 and born/grew up in New York Enlisted and served in WWII until 1946Wrote since being a teenager, for TV plays, many plays made into films and TV series1954 – first time called for jury duty – manslaughter case – eight hours before unanimous vote – wrote Twelve Angry Men as live one-hour legal drama which later became a filmWon many awards, such as Emmys
7Setting 1957 - ‘A very hot summer afternoon’ In a jury room of a New York Court of LawDescribed as ‘scarred table’‘a large, drab bare room in need of painting’Oppressive, stifling: ‘The Guard exits and in the silence the sound is heard of the door being locked.’‘It has grown considerably darker in the room and it’s oppressively still.’Jurors at times move to washroom
8Plot/synopsisYoung man accused of ‘murder in the first degree – premeditated homicide’Twelve jurors locked in a jury room to determine if there is a ‘reasonable doubt’Initially all but one juror find him “Guilty” but with discussion, arguments and persuasion – all change to “Not guilty”Question ability of defence counsel and accounts of witnesses as well as use of evidence – also strip away layers of prejudice, artifice, ‘fancy’…
9What is reasonable doubt “Reasonable Doubt” is explained thusly:“That state of minds of jurors in which they cannot say they feel an abiding conviction as to the truth of the charge.”Source: Charles MontaldoIn the play, both the jurors and audience must decide in the end if they agree – never given proof of the defendant’s innocence 100%
10GKR: “Guilty”Oxford English Reference Dictionary definition: ‘Law: adjudged to have committed a (specified) offence, especially by a verdict in a trial’ (1995)PARAPHRASE THIS MEANINGWHAT IS YOUR MEANING?LIST 3 SYNONYMS and ANTONYMS
11Vocabulary – add more to list wordmeaningsynonymdefendantcounselwitnessprosecutorhung jurypremeditated murderMETALANGUAGEscriptdialoguepropsstage directions
12Characters Why are they anonymous? Why are there 12 people in a jury? Why is the first juror called FOREMAN and what are his duties?In groups of three, quickly research and discuss these questions and report back to class – 10 minutes
13What motivates a character? FearRelationshipsDesireValues/MoralsActionsFamilySecurityPoliticsGreedMoneyStatusPower/AuthorityLove/LustHatredGenderCulture/HistoryEmotionUnderstanding/InterestSpiritual/ReligiousIgnoranceExperiences
14Themes/Ideas/Views and Values Justice and the court/jury system – jury’s deliberation and decisionWhat is truth – is it fallible?Memory – witness accountsWhat is a fact – can details be ‘twisted’?PrejudiceStereotypes and class‘Reasonable doubt’ VS certaintyHistorical Context: McCarthyism - use of trials in 1950s AND use of television drama
15Genre and structure Drama – serious play Realism and Naturalism – explore daily life – a ‘slice of life’ – 1950s movementLegal drama but also about interactions between charactersTwo acts and all characters remain on stage despite washroom visitsEmploys Aristotle’s ‘unity of action, place and time’ – less than a day
16Language and DialogueNatural – language patterns of era and geographical setting of the playWorking-class men yet different ie some ‘white collar’, share cultural interest in sport and film – same vernacular: ‘…ought to be down in Atlantic City at that hairsplitters’ convention.’Use legal terms comfortably: ‘reasonable doubt’, ‘defendant’, ‘counsel’, ‘evidence’
17Play Techniques Setting – description of room Props/sets – bare, minimalCostume – clothing of JURORsStage directions – what they doStage – of jury room and washroomLighting – darkening ‘It is now darker than before’ – due to weather and atmosphere of tensionSound – Judge’s voice, etc.
18What to do: Read the play at least twice Summarise in point form each sceneTakes notes on each characterCollect quotes and group them under headingsAsk yourself: What is the message or point of this play? What questions does the plot raise?Answer the set questionsVocabularyReflect upon each reading and how your views/readings changeWhich character do you like/dislike the most? Why?How does the language in the play influence and position the audience? What about the stage directions and props?