Lesson 5: Fortified, Aromatised and Quinine Wines Aims and Learning Outcomes of the Lesson On completion of this lesson the learner will be expected to be able to; Explain the origins. Constituents and styles of fortified (liqueur), aromatised and quinine wines. Define the unique characteristics, manufacturing processes, suggested service and storage methods of fortified (liqueur), aromatised and quinine wines.
Lesson 5: Fortified, Aromatised and Quinine Wines 5.0 Introduction This lesson introduces the reader to the fortified, aromatised and quinine wines of the world. It focuses on the principle regions, production techniques, individual classification which these producing countries use to produce these unique wines to the highest standards. These complex beverages range from the very dry to very sweet fortified wines.
Lesson 5: Fortified, Aromatised and Quinine Wines 5.1 Port A sweet Portuguese fortified wine from the Douro Valley in the northern provinces of Portugal. It is often served as a dessert wine. Under European Union guidelines (and in Canada), only the product from Portugal may be labelled as Port. Port is produced from grapes grown and processed in the Douro region; the wine produced is then fortified with the addition of distilled grape spirits in order to boost the alcohol content. The wine is then stored and aged, often in barrels stored in cellars in Vila Nova de Gaia, before being bottled. The Instituto dos Vinhos do Douro e Porto (IVDP or Port and Douro Wine Institute) regulates the Port industry in Portugal. Port production (chapter 5 – pp ) Wine Tasting Room. I V D P label, seal of approval
Lesson 5: Fortified, Aromatised and Quinine Wines 5.1 Port (continued) Types and styles of Ports Port comes in several styles, divided into three broad categories White, Red, Brown. White Ports: white Ports are made from white grapes, drier than red and sold as an aperitif. Red Ports: Ruby Ports are the cheapest and most extensively produced type of Port, aged 2 to3 years in wood, darker and fruiter. Early consumption, deep colour fresh red and black fruit flavour. Enjoyed in youth not much tannins. Taste: sweet and high alcohol not complex, low tannins. Reserve or Vintage Character Ports: premium Ruby Ports approved by the IVDPs tasting panel, aged in wood for an average of 5 or more years. Ports with an indication of age: the best Ruby Ports may also be aged further to 10, 20, 30 or 40 years old. Late-Bottled Vintage (LBV) Ports: originally wine that had been destined for bottling as Vintage Port, but due to lack of demand was left in barrel for rather longer than had been planned. Vintage Port: top level Port, accounts for two percent of production, vintage port is the flagship wine of all Portugal, the wine of a single exceptional vintage year bottled early for laying down, The decision on whether to declare a vintage is made in the spring of the second year following the harvest. Single Quinta Ports: vintage Port produced from a particular vineyard, these ports need to be decanted before serving. Garrafeira Ports: an intermediate vintage dated style of Port made from the grapes of a single harvest that combines both the oxidative maturation of years in wood, with further reductive maturation in large glass demijohns. Crusted Ports: good but not vintage Port bottles early for laying down, considered poor man’s vintage port. Bottled at about 3 to 4 years Brown Ports: Tawny Ports and Colheita: Port kept many years in wood until it fades to a tawny colour, best ones are 20 years or so, cost as much as vintage Port, many people prefer their mellowness and moderated sweetness. Young Tawny Ports: actually blends of young red and white ports these are the cheapest forms of tawny ports with little or no ageing in wood. Tawny Reserva Ports: without an indication of age, can age up to 5 years in wood. Tawny Ports (with an indication of age): a blend of several vintages, the average years in wood stated on the label. Fine Old Tawny Ports: (these are generally Ruby Ports which have been aged, this average age in wood is stated on the label). Dated or Colheita Ports: Vintage ports with a slight difference – they must be aged at least 7 years in wood prior to being bottled. Decanting Ports, food pairing Decanting: Ports are usually filtered off their sediments using a silver filter funnel with a perforated strainer and its spout curved sideways to make the wine run down the side of the decanter without splashing. A muslin cloth can also be used. In the case where the decanted wine is to be run back into the original bottle rather then served from a decanter, the bottles are rinsed out and the decanted Port is poured back into the bottle for service. Food pairing: Serve Port with meat, game or strong cheese.
Lesson 5: Fortified, Aromatised and Quinine Wines 5.2 Sherry 1996: The legal name of Sherry was legally recognized as belonging to Spain in this year. Sherry is a fortified wine, made in and around the town of Jerez, Spain and hence in Spanish it is called Vino de Jerez. According to Spanish law, Sherry must come from the triangular area of the province of Cádiz between Jerez, Sanlúcar de Barrameda, and El Puerto de Santa María. 'Sherry' is used as a semi-generic in the United States where it must be labelled with a region of origin such as American Sherry or California Sherry. Sherry differs from other wines because of how it is treated after fermentation. After fermentation is complete, it is first fortified with brandy and then if destined to be Fino (drier) style a yeast called flor is allowed to grow on top. Oloroso (sweeter) style is fortified to a strength where the flor cannot grow. Because the fortification takes place after fermentation, all natural sherries are dry; any sweetness is applied later. Soils: Albariza (the best): the lightest soil, almost white (reflects the sun brilliantly, helping to ripen the grapes), Barros: dark brown soil, 10% chalk, high clay content, doesn’t produce fine wines. Arenas: yellowish soil, 10% chalk, high sand content, doesn’t produce fine wines. The barros and arenas soil are mostly used for Pedro Ximénez and Moscatel grapes. Grapes: Palomino Blanco (main grape the best), Pedro Ximenes (PX) and Moscatel Romano (used for sweetening. Sherry production: grape selection, lying out drying, pressing, fermentation, 1 st classification of the casks, ageing and blending (solera system, next slide), blending and clarifying, preparation for shipping. (chapter 5 – pp ) A venenciador using the venencia for sampling sherry. Sherry barrel displaying development of flor.
Lesson 5: Fortified, Aromatised and Quinine Wines 5.2 Sherry (continued) [ The Solera System - chain of maturity ensures consistency ]
Lesson 5: Fortified, Aromatised and Quinine Wines 5.2 Sherry (continued) Drier styles Fino: young sherry is classified begin with fino. Finos are the best; Spain’s finest wine of all. Many sherry houses regard their principal fino as their flagship. Gonzalez Byass – Tio Pepe, Pedro Domecq – La Ina, and Garvey San Patricio are leading examples of finos that have become brands in there right. Manzanilla: is a fino produced in the sub-region of Sablucar de Barrameda. Salty tang due to the proximity of the bodegas to the Atlantic. Hidalgo la Gitana, Delgado Zuleta La Goya, La Guita, Williams & Hubert, Allegria, and Barbadillo are all successful. Amontillado: Aged first under a cap of flor yeast, and then exposed to oxygen, which produces a result darker than fino but lighter than oloroso. Among the more popular amontillado sherries are Emilio Lustau Fine Dry Amontillado, Gonzalez Byass La Concha, Croft Particular Pale Amontillado, Don Ramos, and Harvey’s Club. Sweeter styles Oloroso a variety of sherry aged oxidatively for a longer time than a fino or amontillado, producing a darker and richer wine if sherry. Look for Emilio Lustau Almacenista Dry Oloroso and Emilio Lustau Rich Old Oloroso also remarkable. Palo Cortado is a rare variety of sherry that is initially aged under flor like an amontillado, but develops a character similar to oloroso, usually darker than finos and olorosos, has a full bouquet, and a crisp finish. Gonzalez Byass and Emilio Lustau produce distinguished palo cortado sherries. Cream Sherries sweet sherries based on Olorosos and sweetened with sweetening wines made from Moscatel and Pedro Ximenez, Example: Harvey’s Bristol Cream. Dark or Brown Sherries the colour comes from adding Vino de colour, a sticky, natural syrup. This is made by taking unfermented grape juice and concentrating it over a slow fire in copper cauldron. Sherry service: Serve Fino and Manzanillas chilled soon after bottling, Serve dessert sherries at room temperature. Sherry needs a big glass for the full aroma. The Lot code on labels indicates when Sherry was bottled, always pick earliest borttlings for lighter Sherries. Store in a upright position. Andalusians say ‘ that you should drink a little but often, Tapas bars serve up inventive local delicacies such as pork chops braised in oloroso and slithery marinaded artichoke hearts.
Lesson 5: Fortified, Aromatised and Quinine Wines 5.3 Madeira The Madeira Wine Institute or Instituto do Vinho da Madeira is the regulatory body for the making of Madeira wine. Soil: The volcanic rock of this island is of great value in that water accumulates in its crevices, but being porous, drains well; and of course the trees burning for seven years made a great deal of Potash, a very good natural fertilizer, thus creating ideal conditions for the vine. Certainly it is fertile today. Viticulture: Cultivation of vine in Madeira is hard work. Everything has to be carried up or down the precipitous paths by hand. The vines are trained mostly in two ways: either on high wires as in Alsace, or on the traditional trellises where the grapes hang down from the top. Grapes: Four main grapes Sercial, Verdelho,Bual, and Malmsey, Tinta Negra Mole (noble variety) the most planted vinfera vine on the island, but outside the top four. Madeira Production: Vinification, Crushing and Pressing, Fermentation & Fortification, Racking, Fortification, Controlling the Temperature (in Estufagem), Cooling, Finishing, Fortification, Filtration and fining, Racking and final classification, Maderisation. (chapter 5 - pp ) The Island of Madeira. Estufagem. Madeira Wine Company cellars.
Lesson 5: Fortified, Aromatised and Quinine Wines 5.3 Madeira (continued) Classification of Madeira wines Four major types of Madeira: Malvasia, Bual, Verdelho, and Sercial, the latter two being drier Madeira may be sold as a vintage wine with a specific year when aged in casks for more than 15 years, or a blended wine with a minimum age, such as 3, 5, 10 or 15 years. The four main varietals Sercial the driest of the Madeira styles. These wines are pale, delicate, nutty bouquet and the most of refreshing smooth of all the Madeira’s. Darkens with age and softens. Best served as an aperitif good with clear soups Verdelho lighter and sweeter than Sercial, ideal on its own this wine is the least known of the four styles. The medium rich wine with a pleasant smoky nutty bouquet resembling hazelnuts and a distinct fruitiness on the palate. Darkens with age until it reaches a deep green-brown. A dry finish, served as an aperitif or with fish appetisers Bual a fragrant, full-bodied wine that is deep brown and buttery-rich in flavour sweet, smoky complexity, which mellows with age. Serve after dinner nuts and cheese Malmsey this full-bodied, soft, very fragrant style is the sweetest style of Madeira. Enormously fruity, honeyed and luscious. Best served as after-dinner drinks, often served in place of Port. Serve after dinner nuts and cheese. Laws relating to vintage Madeira : Finest Choice / Rainwater / Reserve / Special Reserve / Extra Reserve / Vintage. (chapter 5 – pp ); Storage, service and top producers of Madeira Storage: A bottle of Madeira once opened will remain drinkable for weeks or even months. Properly sealed in bottles, Madeira is one of the longest lasting wines; Madeira’s have been known to survive over 150 years in Service of Madeira: Madeira useful in the kitchen and can be used to add flavour to sauces and soups. Stewed kidneys and oxtail, particularly, will be heartened by a spoonful of Malmsey. Top Producers: Twenty-seven companies formed the Madeira Wine Association in Blandy’s, and Cossart Gordon are the top labels, Henriques & Henriques (largest independent producer), Leacock’s and Rutherford & Miles are labels for commercial brands.
Lesson 5: Fortified, Aromatised and Quinine Wines 5.4 Marsala A fortified wine (Vino liquorose – fortified wine in Italian) produced in the region surrounding the ancient Italian port city of Marsala in Sicily. DOC, status since Marsala production Grapes: Marsala is produced using the Grillo, Inzolia, and Catarratto white grapes among others. Marsala is a fortified wine with an alcohol content of around twenty percent. Viticulture: The best vineyards are the locations which reach right down to the water’s edge, as the cool, coastal breezes help the grapes retain a good acid balance. Vinification: Most Marsala is made by pressing these two grape varieties Grillo and Cataratto and then blending them with a mistelle (locally called sifone). The sweet mixture is then fortified with neutral grape brandy and vino cotto (a heated wine concentrate, cooking must); This fortified wine is then matured using a Solera system and aged for at least 5 years before bottling. Marsala, main types and top producers Selection of Port, Sherries, Madeira. Fine: aged for a minimum one year. Superiore: aged at least two years. Superiore Riserva: a vintage wine aged in wood for four years. Vergine e/o Soleras: Vergine is aged in wood for a minimum of five years. Vergine e/o Soleras Stravecchio e Vergine e/o Soleras Riserva: aged at least ten years. Top producers: Florio, Pellegrino, Rallo, Vecchio Samperi, De Bartoli, Lombardo, Colombo. Marsala in cooking and with food : serve chilled with parmesan (stravecchio), gorgonzola, Roquefort and other spicy cheeses, or at room temperature as a dessert wine.
Lesson 5: Fortified, Aromatised and Quinine Wines 5.5 Vermouth Vermouth is a fortified and aromatised wine, flavored with fifty different aromatic herbs and spices. The French are usually credited with the invention of dry vermouth, sometime in the early 19th century, and to this day, France is often associated with drier white vermouths, and Italy with sweeter red vermouths, though both nations produce both types in large quantities. Constituents of Vermouth : Wine: White wine for white and red vermouths, Alcohol: Spirit (96 %) or Mistelle (this is an unfermented grape juice and brandy), Herbs: Gentian, Camomile (anti-spasmodic a great balance, calming, helpful for cramps and nausea), Bitter orange, Vanilla, Rhubarb, Mint, Marjoram, Coriander, Hyssop, Iris, Thyme, Spices: Cinnamon, Cloves, nutmeg, Saffron and ginger, Caramel: Made from saccharose or heated sugar to give its amber coloring. Styles of Vermouth : There are four general styles from driest to sweetest: extra dry, bianco/white, rose and sweet/red. Sweet red vermouth is drunk as an apéritif, often straight up, as well as in mixed drinks. Red vermouths are sometimes referred to as Italian vermouths and white vermouths as French vermouths, although not all Italian vermouths are red and not all white vermouths are French. Traditional alcohol contents of vermouths: White (dry)18% ABV, White (Bianco) 16% ABV, (Rose) 16% ABV, Red (Rosso- sweet) 16% ABV. Vermouth production : Preparation of the liquor base, Preparation of aromatic extracts, Blending, Addition of alcohol, Sweetening, Brewing, Resting, Stabilization and amelioration and Bottling. Best known vermouths: Bartissol (Italy), Cinzano (Italy), Distillerie Stock (Italy), Noilly Prat (France), Marrtini (Italy), Punt e Mes (Italy), Vermut Yzaguirre (Spain). Storage: Dry Vermouth if properly refrigerated would keep for about 6 months. Bianco, Rosso, Rose generally keeps for about 1 year when stored in a cool dry place or refrigerated. Enjoying Vermouth: Just pour some into an old fashioned glass filled with ice, and add a lemon twist, and it is an extremely refreshing drink. Classic cocktails of the world for example (Dry Martini, Sweet Martini, Bronx, Manhattan or the Americano.
Lesson 5: Fortified, Aromatised and Quinine Wines 5.5 Vermouth (continued) [ Selection of the world’s most famous Vermouth’s ]
Lesson 5: Fortified, Aromatised and Quinine Wines 5.6 Quinine Wine Quinine wines: These are aperitifs based on wines with a slight flavour of quinine and other ingredients (for example orange peel). A bitter-wood bark from the cinchona tree, quinine, was known to protect against malaria, but quinine was extremely unpalatable to swallow. Two men Joseph Dubonnet and Alphonse Juppet responded and after successful research both created drinks fortified with brandy, flavoured with aromatic herbs and aged for around two years, these drinks proved so popular in North Africa (sold under the name Quinquina). Initially quinine wines were produced in both white and red varieties and consumed straight up, but over time ice and slices of fresh fruit began to be added. In the twentieth century, it became popular to lengthen the quinine wine with tonic, soda, bitter lemon or lemonade and in the middle 1940s as the quinine white variety popularity diminished and the red variety took over completely the word quinquina or quinine was removed from the labels. Best known quinined wines Dubonnet (France): Blend of herbs and spices including quinine from Peru, cinnamon, bitter-orange peels, green coffee beans, and camomile, it’s based on Roussillon wines, which is lightly fortified with neutral grape alcohol (mistelle). Best served with ice and a slice of lemon, or in a tall glass with ice and bitter lemon or lemonade. Dubonnet is now available in both Rouge and Blanc varieties. Rich ruby color, spicy aroma and refreshing flavors, Dubonnet embodies the best of the aperitif category. Saint Rapheal (France): A secret recipe of herbs and spices, wine. Available in Ambre and Rouge), both drinks are best served chilled or with ice and slice of orange / lemon, or with bitter lemon. Byrrh (France): produced at Thuir, France in the foothills of the French Pyrenees, Byrrh has a deep red colour, bouquet of flowers and peels. It’s dry on the palate and is best served with ice and bitter lemon / tonic / or soda water a slim tall glass is recommended to seal the bouquet of flavors to be enjoyed. Ambassadeur (France) available in two styles, Blanc and Rouge (red), Ingredients include a secret recipe of herbs and spices, which include bitter and sweet orange peels, vanilla, cocoa, and gentian flowers, a mistelle, white or red wines (depending upon the style) and neutral alcohol. Best served chilled.
Lesson 5: Fortified, Aromatised and Quinine Wines Conclusion These complex beverages range from the aromatic (vermouths and quinine wines),very dry (Fino Sherries) to the very sweet (Ruby Ports, Madeira, Marsala’s) which also makes them the ideal partner within all stages of the meal experience as aperitifs, disgestifs to pick-me-ups. They present a true expression of their place of origin. Although there classification can sometimes be somewhat confusing with a little study and a healthy interest in tasting these wines at every possible opportunity can lead to recommending and delivering these wines to your customers in the appropriate fashion. Fortified, aromatised and quinine wines can play a unique role towards contributing to the overall success of your bar and restaurant (themed bars, special occasions, Tapas bars).
Lesson 5: Fortified, Aromatised and Quinine Wines References Burroughs. D and Bezzant.N. (1990)The New Wine Companion, 2nd ed, Heinemann Professional Publishing, UK. Cossart, N. (1984) Madeira the island vineyard, Christie's Wine Publications: London. Johnson, H. (2003) World Atlas of Wine, 4th ed, Chancellor Press: UK. Jones, A. (1998)The Apertif Companion, Apple Press: London. Murphy, J. (2013) Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management – The Drinks Handbook, Goodfellow Publishing Ltd, Oxford: England. Halliday, J and Johnson, H. (2000) The Art & Science of Wine, Mitchell Beazley:UK. Spence, G. (2003) Teach Yourself Wine Tasting, Fortified Wines, Wine & Spirit Education Trust: UK. Wilson, S. (2000) The Complete Guide to Spirits & Liqueurs, Anness Publishing Ltd: London. Web resources Instituto dos Vinhos do Douro e Porto. Sherry official website. Bartissol background. Distillerie Stock. Martini and Rosso. Vermut Yzaguirre. Cinzano. Pocket guide books for wine pronunciations. Decanter magazine.