Presentation on theme: "Transcription Catalyst What are the three parts of a nucleotide? Which part of DNA holds it together? Which part of DNA stores information (code)"— Presentation transcript:
Transcription Catalyst What are the three parts of a nucleotide? Which part of DNA holds it together? Which part of DNA stores information (code) for making protein? Write the complementary base sequence for this DNA T T C G A G C T A Write in complete sentences! Don’t talk during the Catalyst!
Agenda Catalyst Test Prep Review Science as Inquiry RNA The Central Dogma Practice Exit Question
Can you compete with Biology students from around the nation?
Test Prep Review 1) The types of proteins produced in a cell are regulated by the 1 order of nucleotides in DNA molecules 2 shape of DNA molecules 3 size of nucleotides in DNA molecules 4 location of DNA molecules
Test Prep Review 16 In DNA, which of the following determines the traits of an organism? F Amount of adenine G Number of sugars H Sequence of nitrogen bases J Strength of hydrogen bonds
Test Prep Review 19 All of the following are found in a DNA molecule except — A carbon dioxide B deoxyribose C nitrogen D phosphate
Test Prep Review 21 In all plant and animal cells, the nucleus contains long molecules of DNA. Which of the following best describes the function of DNA? F DNA provides the shape and structure of the nucleus. G DNA packages materials for transport through the nucleus. H DNA carries materials into and out of the nucleus. J DNA contains the blueprint for producing the whole organism.
Objectives By the end of today, SWBAT… State the central dogma of biology Compare and contrast the structures and functions of DNA and RNA
Science as Inquiry (7 minutes) The instructions you need for making a table are at the store, and you’re at home. What do you do? The instructions the cell needs for making protein (DNA) is in the nucleus, and proteins are made in the ribosome. What does the cell do?
Imagine that you just bought a sweet table from IKEA. When you open the package, it’s broken into tons of different pieces and there are no instructions for how to put it together! Weird. So you call up the store, and they say, “Sorry, we ran out of instructions. We have one last copy here, but we aren’t allowed to let it leave the store.” You need the instructions to put together the table. So… what do you do?
DNA stores the instructions for making proteins. But, in eukaryotic cells, DNA is stored in the nucleus, and proteins are made in the ribosome. What do you think needs to happen for the cell to use the DNA’s instructions to make protein?
RNA Key Point #1: mRNA copies genetic information from DNA, and carries it to the ribosomes. DNA STORES the information, but cannot leave the nucleus. So mRNA copies the information and CARRIES it out of the nucleus. (mRNA = messenger RNA) This is called TRANSCRIPTION.
Base Pairing RNA loves U
Science as Inquiry (5 minutes) RNA is similar to DNA, but not the same… Look at #3. Find as many differences between the pictures as you can. Write them out!
Structure of RNA Key Point #2: There are three important structural differences between DNA and RNA. RNA is single- stranded. RNA’s sugar is ribose, not deoxyribose like DNA. In RNA, Uracil (U) pairs with (A).
Base Pairing RNA loves U
Putting It All Together Central dogma of biology: Information in DNA is copied into RNA, which is used to make proteins that determine all traits. The central dogma of biology is one of the two most important beliefs in biology. It explains how DNA tells your cells how to do… everything.
Central Dogma DNA RNA Protein Transcription Translation
Guided Practice 1 One strand of DNA has the nitrogenous bases of TAGCCAG What is the complimentary strand of DNA? ATCGGTC What is the complimentary strand of RNA? AUCGGUC
Guided Practice 2 One strand of DNA has the nitrogenous bases of CCCATATTA What is the complimentary strand of DNA? GGGTATAAT What is the complimentary strand of mRNA? GGGUAUAAU
Guided Practice 3 What is the Central Dogma of Biology? DNA’s information is copied into RNA. RNA’s info can then be used to make proteins. DNA transcription RNA translation PROTEIN
Guided Practice 3 DNARNA # of strands Nitrogenous bases used Type of sugar in backbone What does it do with genetic information? Is it made of nucleotides? Where is it found? Complimentary strand to DNA of GATTACTACGA Complimentary strand to DNA of TTTAGGGCCCAT
Practice 4 – Central Dogma of Biology 1. In your own words, what is a “dogma”? 2. Using at least one complete sentence, state the central dogma of biology. 3. Using words and arrows, show the central dogma of biology. 4. Using the central dogma, explain why RNA is important for making protein.
Practice 5 - Transcription 1. What is the definition of transcription? 2. What part of DNA and RNA is the genetic information? What does the genetic information give instructions for making? 3. Transcribe these DNA strands into their complimentary mRNA strands. 1. G G G C C C G A T A G G G A A A A T T A G A T C 2. A T A T G G G A A A C C T A G C T A C T A T C A A
CHALLENGE! 22 Erwin Chargaff studied the DNA of organisms within a single species. Chargaff discovered that the amount of adenine is about equal to the amount of thymine. Which of these explains why the ratio of adenine to thymine is nearly 1:1? A Adenine and thymine pair with each other. B Adenine binds with phosphates, while thymine binds with nitrates. C Adenine and thymine are identical in chemical composition. D Adenine bases contain a form of thymine.
CHALLENGE! 90 The molecule coded directly from DNA is represented by which number in the diagram to the right? (1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4
Independent Practice Expectations Work QUIETLY for the remainder of the class period. WORK HARD. GET SMART. BE SUCCESSFUL.
Exit Questions What is transcription? Explain how DNA and RNA are DIFFERENT. Give 3 examples. Explain how DNA and RNA are SIMILAR. Give 2 examples. Write in complete sentences! Don’t talk during the Exit Question! EXPLAIN: Tell me HOW