3African Genesis: Interpreting the Evidence In 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species-species evolve by natural selectionAfrican origins suggested by discovery of Australopithecus africanus in confirmed by work of the Leakeys in E. Africa beginning in 1950Archaeological evidence, understanding evolution of other species & tracing human genetic code backwards has helped scientists track evolution of human beings over 5 million yearsAustralopithecus africanusFirst pre-human ancestors discovered-Initially rejected because of small brain.Opinion changed when new evidence showed it hadmany features intermediate between apes & humans
4Human EvolutionAustralopithecines & modern humans are hominids- members of primate familyDistinguished from other primates by three characteristics: bipedalism, large brain & larynx low in neckHominids gained advantages during climate changesMore climate changes2 -3 million years ago caused evolution of Homo habilis- brain 50 % largerBy 1 million years ago, Homo habilis & all australopithecines were extinctReplaced by Homo erectus (1.7 million years ago) & then Homo sapiens (400,000 to 100,000 years ago)Genetic evidence suggests further development emerged around 50,000 years ago (capacity for speech)
5Migrations from Africa Low sea levels associated with Ice Age allowed Homo erectus & Homo sapiens to migrate from Africa to Europe & AsiaHomo sapiens migrated from Africa (40,000 years ago) & crossed land bridge to Americas during last glacial period (32,000–13,000 years ago)Low sea levels allowed Homo sapiens to reach Japan & New Guinea/AustraliaMinor physical evolutionary changes (skin color)Humans adapted to new environments through process of technological adaptation
6Ice Age: Food Gathering & Stone Tools Stone Age (2 million - 4,000 years ago)Paleolithic (Old Stone Age—to 10,000 years ago)Neolithic (New Stone Age)Paleolithic - characterized by production of stone tools used to scavenge meat from dead animals & huntHomo sapiens very good hunters –probably caused extinction of mastodons & mammoths about 11,000 years agoStone Age people foraged vegetable foods more than meatHuman use of fire traced to 1.5 million years ago-conclusive evidence of cooking (clay pots) only found 12,500 years ago
7Gender Roles & Social Life Slow maturation rate of human infants & ability of adults to mate any time are thought to be causes of development of two-parent family (characteristic of hominids)Women gathered food, cooked, child-careMen mainly huntedHunter-gatherers lived in small groups-migrated regularly to follow game animals & to take advantage of seasonal variations in ripening of foraged foods
8Hearths & Cultural Expressions Migrating hunter-gatherers lived in camps; used natural or temporary sheltersPermanent fishing communities made more solid structuresClothing of animal skins sewn together w/ vegetable fiber & rawhide cordsHunter-gatherers spent 3-5 hrs a day on food, clothing & shelter- left time for cultural activities like gathering, organizing, passing on information, art & religionCave art suggests Ice Age people had complex religionBurial sites indicate belief in afterlife
9Agricultural Revolution: Domestication of Plants & Animals Occurred independently worldwide at different rates--Caused by climate changeTransition occurred first in Middle East, but also Eastern Sahara, Nile Valley, Greece, Central EuropeEarly farmers practiced swidden agriculture, changed fields when fertility declinedEnvironments dictated choice of crops.Mediterranean = Wheat & barley -South & SE Asia = Rice -Equatorial W. Africa = YamsSub-Saharan Africa = Sorghum, millet -Americas = Maize, potatoes, quinoa, manioc
10Domesticated Animals & Pastoralism Domestication of animals proceeded at same time as plantsHunters first domesticated dogs; sheep & goats were later domesticated for meat, milk, woolAnimals pulled plows; supplied manure for fertilizerTwo exceptions to pattern ofAmericas: no animals suitable for domestication except llamas, guinea pigs, & some fowl; hunting remained main source of meat; humans main source of labor powerArid parts of Central Asia & Africa: environment not appropriate for settled agriculture; pastoralists herded cattle or other animals from one grazing area to another
11Agriculture & Ecological Crisis Humans transitioned to agricultural or pastoralist economies because global warming ( B.C.E.) brought environmental changes-reduced game & wild foodsAgricultural revolution increased world’s human population—from 10 million in 5000 b.c.e. to between million in 1000 b.c.e.
12Life in Neolithic Communities: Cultural Expressions Early food producers worshiped ancestral & nature spirits centered on sacred groves, springs, wild animals; deities such as Earth Mother & Sky GodEarly societies used megaliths (big stones) to construct burial chambers & calendar circles to aid astronomical observationsExpansion of food-producing societies reflected in patterns of language groups dispersed around Eastern Hemisphere; Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan, & Afro-Asiatic
13Early Towns & Specialists Most people lived in villages, but in some places, the environment supported the growth of towns in which one finds more elaborate dwellings, facilities for surplus food storage, & communities of specialized craftspeopleTwo best-known examples of Neolithic towns are:Jericho- on west bank of Jordan River; walled w/mud-brick structures; dates back to 8000 B.C.E.Çatal Hüyük- central Turkey, dates to 7000–5000 b.c.e.
14Catal HuyukCenter for obsidian trade; craftspeople produced pottery, baskets, woolen cloth, beads, leather & wood productsNo evidence of dominant class or centralized political leadershipArt reflects fascination with hunting, but agriculture was mainstay of economyFlourishing religion that involved offerings of food; may have centered on worship of goddess & administered by priestessesRemains include decorative, ceremonial objects made of copper, lead, silver, gold; tools/weapons continued to be made from stone
15What is significance of Jericho & Catal Huyuk? Emerging social organization; food producers supported nonproducing specialists; priests & craftspeopleLabor mobilized for nonproductive projects; defensive walls, megalithic structures & tombsDon’t know if labor was free or coerced
16ConclusionsHumans are descended from hominids that evolved in Africa about 7 million years ago. Modern human beings are descended from communities that evolved in Africa 50,000 years agoHumans began developing a variety of tools more than 2 million years ago from stone, bone, skin, wood, and plant fiber. Though primarily vegetarian, Paleolithic people also used weapons to hunt. They developed a sexual division of labor and became knowledgeable about the natural world that provided them with clothing and medicine.Climate change drove early human communities to abandon hunting and gathering and develop agriculture and pastoralism, which consequently increased the global human population from 2 to 10 million in less than 10,000 years.Prosperity of the settled life during the Neolithic period led to the first towns, trade, and specialization. Archaeology reveals that humans developed forms of religion to recognize the cycles of death and rebirth.
17Discussion QuestionsHow did the physical and cultural characteristics of hominids change over time, and how do scientists document and explain these changes?How have changes in the environment influenced the physical development of the human species?What is culture? Do environmental conditions and changes in the techniques of production have an effect on culture? If so, how?What effects did the agricultural revolutions have on Neolithic societies?What were women’s roles in the first 4 million years of human history? What evidence can we find that might give us some indications of what women’s roles may have been? Does the evidence indicate how women’s roles may have changed over time? How and why might such change have occurred?
19Civilization EmergesCities: As farmers settled in fertile river valleys, they began to grow surplus or extra food. This extra food increased the population of the settlements. In time, the settlements grew into cities, such as Ur in Sumer or Babylon in Mesopotamia.Organized Central Governments: As cities developed and expanded, the food supply and irrigation systems needed to bemaintained. Governments, such as councils or religious leaders, began to oversee the business and existence of the cities.Complex Religions: Religious leaders would conduct elaborate ceremonies to appease the gods (polytheism)and insure a bountiful harvest. Floods and droughts were blamed on the gods’ anger so rituals were conducted in the temples.Job Specialization: As civilizations became more complex, artisans and craftsmen were needed to maintain specific items and tasks. No longer could individuals do all the work. Now some concentrated on teaching, scribing, stonecutting, etc.Social Classes: As jobs became specialized so did the status& needs of certain individuals. The need for a knowledgeable & educated religious leader was more respected than unskilled workers. Herders were needed & respected for providingfood, while masons were needed for building. Slave were on lowest rung of the social ladder, warriors & kings were on top.Writing: Records were needed to keep accounts ontrade goods and food storage. Writing was needed because the information became too great. In addition, one needed to express more complex ideas such as "belief" and "social order" where pictures and words simply would not suffice.Art and Architecture: This expressed the beliefs and values of acivilization. Different styles were developed and copied by societies. Often the art was used to impress visitors and people about the beauty and power of a king or a communityPublic Works: The government would order these, although costly, to aid and benefit the community. Such things as a wall to protect from attack or a canal to aid in irrigation would help insure the survival of a people.
20Mesopotamia: Settled Agriculture in an Unstable Landscape Difficult for agriculturelittle rainfallrivers flood at wrong time for grainrivers change course unpredictablywarm climate & good soil4000 b.c.e., cattle-pulled plows to cultivate barley3000 b.c.e., irrigation canalsOther crops & natural resources date palms, vegetables, reeds , fish, & fallow land for grazing goats and sheepDraft animals included cattle and donkeys and, later camels & horsesNo significant wood, stone, or metal resourcesEarliest people & initial creators of Mesopotamian culture were Sumerians2000 b.c.e., Sumerians supplanted by Semitic-speaking peoples who dominated & intermarried with Sumerians-preserved Sumerian culture
21Standard of Ur What elements of civilization can you see here? What does this artifact reveal about Sumerian culture?
22Mesopotamia: Cities, Kings, Trade society of villages & cities linked by mutual interdependencevillages produced food to feed nonproducing urban elite & craftspeoplecities provided military protection, markets, & specialist-produced goodsCity States-city & its agricultural landsometimes fought over resources-water & land; other times, they cooperated in sharing resourcestraded with one anothermobilized human resources to open new farmland & to build/maintain irrigation systemsConstruction of irrigation systems required the organization of large numbers of people for laborTwo centers of power: temples & palacesTemples were landholders-priests controlled considerable wealthreligious power predates secular power of palaces
23Mesopotamia: Cities, Kings, Trade Secular leadership developed in third millennium b.c.e.-“big men” (lugal), originally military leaders, emerged as secular leadersThe Epic of Gilgamesh-example of secular powerEventually some city-states absorbed othersAkkadian state, Sargon of Akkad (Empire Builder) around 2350 b.c.e., & Third Dynasty of Ur (2112–2004 b.c.e.)Hammurabi established Old Babylonian stateCode of Hammurabi provides infor about Old Babylonian law, punishments, & societyMesopotamian states needed resources- obtained by territorial expansion & through long-distance tradeMerchants originally employed by temples or palaces; later, private merchants emerged.Trade carried out through barter or traded for fixed weights of precious metal or measurements of grains
24Mesopotamian SocietyReligion was amalgam of Sumerian & later Semitic beliefs & deitiesdeities anthropomorphic-each city had guardianHumans were servants of gods-complex, specialized hereditary priesthood served godsTemples were walled compounds containing religions & functional buildingsMost visible part of temple compound was zigguratLittle knowledge of beliefs & religious practices of common peopleEvidence indicates a popular belief in magic & use of magic to influence gods
25Mesopotamian Technology & Science Technology: “any specialized knowledge that is used to transform the natural environment & human society.”includes irrigation systems & nonmaterial specialized knowledge such as religious lore, ceremony, writing systemsCuneiform:evolved from using pictures to represent sounds of words or parts of wordscomplex, required hundreds of signs- monopolized by scribesDeveloped to write Sumerian but later used to write Akkadian & other Semitic & non-Semitic languagesUsed to write economic, political, legal, literary, religious, & scientific texts
26Mesopotamian Technology & Science Cuneiform numbers were written using a combination of just two signs: a vertical wedge for '1' and a corner wedge for '10'. Handwriting varied as much in Old Babylonian times as it does now but the basic system of numbers is illustrated below. Mesopotamian Technology & ScienceIrrigation, transportation (boats, barges, & donkeys), bronze metallurgy, brickmaking, engineeringMilitary technology-paid, full-time soldiers; horses; horse-drawn chariot; bow & arrow; & siege machinerynumbers (base-60 system)-advances in mathematics & astronomy
27Egypt:“Gift of the Nile” Defined by Nile River-narrow green strip of arable land on either side of its banks, & fertile Nile delta area“Red land” barren desert“Black Land,” majority populationDivided into two areas: Upper Egypt, along the southern part of the Nile as far south as the First CataractLower Egypt, the northern delta areaClimate good for agriculture-little or no rainfallFarmers had to depend on river for irrigation
28Egypt: “Gift of the Nile” Nile floods regularly & at right time-leaving rich & easily worked deposit of siltdepended on floodsusually regular-inspired orderly view of universeOther natural resources:reeds (papyrus for writing)wild animalsbirds & fishplentiful building stone & clayaccess to copper & turquoise from desertgold from Nubia
29Egypt: Divine Kingship Evolved from pattern of small states ruled by local kings-emerged into large, unified Egyptian state around 3100 b.c.e.Organized into thirty dynasties: three longer periods: Old, Middle, New Kingdomsdivided by periods of political fragmentation & chaosKings (pharaohs) dominated Egyptian state- gods come to earth-ensured welfare & prosperity of people-maintain Ma’at (truth, order, justice, harmony, law, morality)Death of pharaoh beginning of journey back to godsFuneral rites & preservation of body important to maintain Ma’atEarly pharaohs buried in flat-topped rectangular tombs-stepped pyramid tombs appeared about 2630 b.c.e. & smooth-sided pyramids laterGreat pyramids at Giza constructed b.c.e. (Old Kingdom period only)Constructed w/ stone tools & simple lever, pulley & rollers-required substantial resources & labor
30Egypt: Administration and Communication central administration through system of provincial & village bureaucraciesBureaucrats kept track of land, labor, taxes, people; collected resourcesSupported central government institutions- palace, bureaucracy & army & maintain temples, construct monumentsTwo writing systems: hieroglyphics & cursivePapyrus- used for religious & secular literature &record keepingTensions between central & local government were constantWhen central power was predominant, provincial officials were appointed & promoted by central government on meritWhen central power was weak, provincial officials become autonomous- made positions hereditary-buried in own districts rather than near tomb of king
31Egypt: Administration & Communication More rural than Mesopotamiahad cities, but haven’t been excavated-know little about urban liferegarded all foreigners as enemies, but desert nomad neighbors posed no serious military threatmore interested in acquiring resources than in acquiring territory; resources acquired through tradeEgypt traded directly with the Levant & Nubia- indirectly with Punt (probably part of modern Somalia)Exports-papyrus, grain, goldImports-incense, Nubian gold, Lebanese cedar, tropical African ivory, ebony, animals
32People of EgyptPopulation of about 1 to 1.5 million physically heterogeneous people, some dark-skinned-some lighter-skinnedDivided into several social strata: (1) the king & high-ranking officials; (2) lower-level officials, local leaders and priests, professionals, artisans, well-off farmers; and (3) peasants, the majority of the populationPeasants lived in villages, cultivated the soil- paid taxes, provided labor serviceWomen were subordinate to men, engaged in domestic activitiesHad right to hold, inherit & will propertyRetained rights over their own dowry after divorceMore rights than Mesopotamian women
33Egypt: Belief and Knowledge Based on a cyclical view of natureTwo most significant gods-sun-god Re & Osiris, god of the Underworld, who was killed, dismembered & then restored to life, represented renewal & life after deathKings-identified with Re & Horus, son of Osiris- served as chief priestslarge amount of wealth spent constructing fabulous templesTemple activities included regular offerings to gods & great festivals
34Egypt: Belief and Knowledge Belief in afterlife inspired mummification-provided knowledge of chemistry anatomyTombs pictures/artifacts provide extensive information about daily lifeTombs built in desert avoided wasting arable land-reflected social status of deceasedMathematics, astronomy, calendar making, irrigation, engineering/architecture, & transportation technology
35Indus Valley Civilization Central part of Indus Valley area is Sind region of modern PakistanAdjacent related areas included Hakra River (now dried up), the Punjab & Indus delta regionIndus carries silt- floods regularly twice a yearAccess to river water for irrigation allowed farmers in the Indus Valley & related areas to produce two crops a year despite the region’s sparse rainfall
36Indus Valley: Material Culture flourished from 2600 to 1900 b.c.e.Harappa (3½ miles in circumference, population about 35,000)Mohenjo-Daro (several times larger)Surrounded by brick walls, streets laid out in grid pattern-supplied with covered drainage systems to carry away waste.remains of citadel-center of authority, storehouses for grain, barracks for artisanscontrolled surrounding farmlandHarappa located on frontier between agricultural land & pastoral economies-may have been a nexus of trade in copper, tin, & precious stones from NWHigh degree of standardization in city planningSome scholars argue was result of extensive trade within the region rather than the existence of authoritarian central government
37Indus ValleyBetter access to metal than Egyptians & Mesopotamians-artisans created utilitarian & luxury itemsExtensive irrigation systems, potter’s wheel, kiln-baked bricks & bronze metallurgyExtensive trade w/ NW- Iran, Afghanistan & even MesopotamiaWe know little of the identity, origins, or fate of people of Indus ValleyWriting system has not been deciphered
38Indus Valley: Transformation Former- Indus Valley cities abandoned around 1900 b.c.e. –due to invasionNow -decline due to breakdown caused by natural disasters & ecological changedecline in agricultural productiondrying up of Hakra River-salinization, erosionWhen urban centers collapsed, so did way of life of elites-peasants probably adapted & survived
39Conclusions Political & Economic Comparisons Mesopotamia, Egypt, & Indus Valley all developed along river systems where they were assured an adequate water supply for agricultureThey all developed political structures for organization of labor to provide irrigation systemsKingship developed as the political leadership system of both Egypt & Mesopotamia-Egypt’s kings were believed to be divine in origin, while Mesopotamia’s rulers were notReligious & Cultural ComparisonsThe predictable flooding of the Nile translated into a relatively optimistic outlook on the afterlife for EgyptiansIn contrast, the unpredictable and violent flooding of the Tigris-Euphrates Basin gave Mesopotamians a more fearful expectation of their afterlifeAll three civilizations developed architectural techniques for building large structuresEgyptian women appear to have enjoyed more equality in society than did Mesopotamian women
40Discussion Questions1. How did differences in the environment and geographical location affect the development of these three early civilizations?2. What evidence do you see here of interaction between these civilizations and other peoples (including interaction among the three civilizations themselves)? How important do you think that interaction with other peoples was for the development of these three civilizations?3. What demands arose for these civilizations that led to their technological advancements?4. What factors might explain the rise and decline of civilizations in general and of these particular civilizations?5. How do the religious beliefs and world-views in Mesopotamia and Egypt reflect the relationships between the environment and the people of these civilizations?6. What is the connection between knowledge and power? How did writing play into this relationship?