2MOUNTAIN MEN;Beaver fur shortage in east, looked to forests/rocky mountains for beaver.Lived lonely lives, sometimes traded with Indians, some even married them.Dangers faced – grizzly bears, attacks from Indians, freezing rivers
3PIONEERS1840s – mass emigration to west (Oregon and California) in wagonsREASONS;1837 – Depression in East, no jobsEast Coast Winters were bad – warmer in WestWest sounds more excitingOvercrowded in East, not enough farmlandLetters from those in West saying how much better it was
4THE JOURNEY;Journey = 3000 KM along trails (discovered by Mountain men)If did it in 6 months, considered good!1/10 would die before they reached west
5SOME DIFFICULTIES; Desert – little water, very hot Snowfall – major hazard for wagonsRain – wagons get stuck/damagedAttacks from SiouxDisease and illnessGrizzly bearsRunning out of food
6MANIFEST DESTINY Popular idea; It said that Americans had a duty to spread their way of life across the entire continent. It was what God wanted them to do. Anyone who went to live in the deserted areas of the West was following their Manifest Destiny. If anyone stood in the way of Manifest Destiny, they were standing in the way of God,
7Was the desire to get rich the main reason why early settlers travelled West in large numbers in the 1840s and 1850s? Explain your answer.- Jim Bridger guided wagon trains across the West- In 1845 John O’Sullivan wrote about ‘Manifest Destiny’- The building of Salt Lake City began in 1847
8Comment on both paragraphs – what’s good and what could be improved In some ways I agree that getting rich was the main reason why early settlers went west. For example in 1874 gold was found in the Black Hills. This meant that many whites travelled west to get as much money as they could.However in some ways I don’t agree. For example in 1845 the idea of Manifest Destiny was invented. This said that it was Americans’ duty to settle the whole continent. And many people went west to avoid economic problems in the east.
9GOLD MINERS1849 – mass gold rush ‘49ers’… lots of gold in California, people went over to find their fortunesBuilt shelters, staked claims – were Americans, English, Scots, French, Germans, Italians, ChineseWet and filthy work, crowded, lots of drinking and gambling, unhygienicSurface gold gone, had to mine – dangerous, pay was low.Miner’s committee - punished those who stole other’s claims (Chinese treated worst)
10Past Questions2. Was the desire to get rich the main reason why early settlers travelled West in large numbers in the 1840s and 1850s?Explain your answer.- Jim Bridger guided wagon trains across the West- In 1845 John O’Sullivan wrote about ‘Manifest Destiny’- The building of Salt Lake City began in 18473 - Was the growth of railroads the main reason why so many people moved west in the USA after the end of the Civil War in 1865? – 15 marks- The Oregon Trail was a popular route westthe first trans-continental railroad was opened- The belief in Manifest Destiny
11MORMONS1830JOSEPH SMITH in claimed this and claimed he went and found these gold plates.JOSEPH SMITH claimed the plates were like pages of a book, each covered with ancient writing.JOSEPH SMITH claimed he translated these pages and they became the Book of Mormon. Smith chose several witnesses to write that they had seen the plates. He then returned the plates to the hillside.goldJOSEPH SMITH started theMormon Church (a new religious group)
12Do you believe him???Most Americans thought the Mormon Religious Group would not last but they had not counted on it’s leader, the guy that started the Mormon faith, JOSEPH SMITH.He was a brilliant preacher.He told his followers to start building God’s kingdom in America to prepare for the second coming of Christ.
13JOSEPH SMITH'S MORMON RELIGION.... Appealed to many people but UPSET many others!!Wherever the Mormons went in America, they were not welcome!!!
14KIRTLAND, OHIONon mormons did not like that J Smith used to tell his follower’s they were God’s people…. They did not trust him.Mormons worked hard, became very successful, people were jealous of their successBanks of Mormon set up – banks collapsed 1837 – many lost their savings, Mormons blamed……. Chased to Missouri
15MISSOURIMormons were against Slavery – caused trouble, Missouri = slave stateMormons not unfriendly to Indians – many people were against them…. Rumour they asked the indians to help them….. Chased out of Missouri to NauvooNAUVOO, ILLINOISAnnounced men could marry more than one wife (polygamy) – non mormons were shocked, saw it as a sin, feared a population explosion.
16Why hated? Bank collapse (Kirtland Ohio) 1837 Adding to the Bible (Book of Mormon)/new religionFriendship with slaves/IndiansNo private ownership (therefore no slaves)Polygamy (1844 onwards, Nauvoo)Presidential campaign (1844)Fast-growing (eg 35,000 in Nauvoo – from nothing 10 years earlier)
171844 – J Smith was put in jail, mob broke in and murdered him. New leader = Brigham Young… decided to move the people WestHad read Salt Lake valley - remoteHad 16,000 Mormons to travel 2250 km – took an advanced partyBuilt winter quartersDisciplined journey over – up at 5am, bed by 8.30pm700 died from starvation or disease
18Living at Great Salt Lake Valley Sharing land fairly, each family gets a plot, largest families – largest plotsBuilt irrigation system to provide waterSent missionaries to get skilled people from east coast and Europe to join MormonsSet up Perpetual Emigrating fund – to give money and equipment to people travelling to join usCharge travellers who cross the Great Salt Lake Valley
19Brigham = not completely successful 1848 – USA took Great Salt Lake Valley from Mexico – Young asked if he could create an independent Mormon state called Deseret. Gov refused, instead, made him gov of smaller area – Utah.Mormons expected to obey US laws – but Young with 50 wives not keen to… travellers complained about prices to cross
20More problemsSocial ones – attempts to start manufacturing industry (to export) didn’t work, schools only open 3 months of year1857 – Mormon War – troops sent in (fears of Mormon plot?) – Mormons fought back – Mountain Meadow Massacre – more troops sent – Mormons then got sympathy and compromise/peace reachedDeal – 1858 – Mormons get full pardon but have to accept gentile governor1896 – Utah became a state (the price…?)
21Past Question;How important was Brigham Young in helping the Mormons overcome the problems of establishing a permanent settlement at Salt Lake City in the years ? Explain your answer.BY – in charge of planning the city / got them west / gets them sorted after Smith’s deathOther reasons – engineering of the city / PEF / 1858 deal
22Homesteaders = farmers who settled on the plains 1860s – people settled in the plains.PULL FACTORS;1 – Actions of the US Government-Homestead Act – gave 160 acres of land to each family, free if farmed for 5 years-Timber and Culture Act – awarded an extra 160 acres of land as long as 40 acres were planted with trees
232 – The actions of the Railroad Companies; 1862 – 2 companies started building Transcontinental Railroad, lots of railroadsRailroad companies given land by US Gov – selling land at low prices, could pay for construction…. More and more settlersLettersLetters home from those who had already settled, encouraging
24PUSH FACTORS FROM EUROPE; Shortage of good farmland in Norway/SwedenUnemployment/poverty affecting Eng, Ger, Irish, Russians and ScotsJews escaping persecutionPUSH FACTORS FROM EASTERN STATES;Shortages of farmland in eastern statesFew jobs for ex soldiers after Am Civil WarPUSH FROM SOUTHERN STATESBlack Americans still persecuted even through freeCrops had failed and people were hungry.
25PROBLEMS (some examples) SOLUTIONS Water shortagesWindmills – used to pump water from undergroundGrowing crops – planting crops they had always grown, maize and soft winter and spring wheatsDry farming – plough land after heavy rainfall, leave thin layer of dust over surface, traps moistureWheat – more suitable crop (Turkey Red Wheat)Protecting cropsBarbed wire invented 1874Ploughing – slow, back breaking taskFrom 1880s – new machinery developed such as reapers, binders and threshers
26Past QuestionWhat part did new technology play in the solving the problems of farming the Plains? Explain your answer – 12 marks
27Past Question - Homesteaders 3. Was technology the most important factor in solving the problems of the homesteaders? Explain your answer- Cyrus McCormick opened a factory manufacturing his mechanical reaper in 1847- The government passed the Timber and Culture Act in 1873- In 1874 Russian migrants introduced Turkey Red Wheat
28Past Question;2. Was the extreme weather the main reason why it was so difficult for the Homesteaders to live and farm on the Plains in the 1860s and 1870s? Explain your answer.- The Plains were known as the Great American Desert- Thousands of emigrants from Europe settled on the Plains- No rain fell on Kansas between January 1859 and November 1860.
29Cattlemen and CowboysRanchers = people who own (or manage) large farms (ranches) where cattle are bred.How did the Cattle Industry develop? – Part 1: the cattle drives from TexasTexas Longhorn = type of cattle in the south (was a tough beast) Could survive on dry grasslands of Texas.1850s Texas was a major centre for cattle ranching.
301861-1865 – was the American Civil War Texans went away to fight and Longhorns were left to wander. By end of war, Cattle herds were much bigger…. Ranchers realised they needed a bigger market now than just Texas1866 – Charles Goodnight and his partner Oliver Loving successfully drove their cattle 1000km north from Texas…. To sell at the Military fort in New Mexico
31There was increasing demand for beef in the growing cities of the East. Railroads were being built on the plains. They provided links to the giant cattle market in Chicago and the cities of the East.In 1867 – Joseph McCoy, a Chicago cattle dealer created a town called Abilene on the Kansas Pacific Railroad. McCoy bought cattle at good prices and arranged for them to be shipped easy on the railroad for slaughter and care.
32Process of a Cattle drive… Cowboys round up the Longhorns on the Texas ranch. Cattle are checked to see if they are strong enough for 1200km drive.Wagon of supplies go with them – coffee, beans, sugar, cornmeal, flourSome cowboys may be injured on the way by cattle eg when branding cows
334 – At times the herd disappear so cowboys have to find them 5 – Some cattle are often handed over to the indians so that they could travel safely through their land.6 - When it rains you cover less than 10 km a day7 – When you get to Abilene – the cattle traders pay $50 dollars per head of cattle.8 – Cowboys go to the saloons to celebrate
34How did the cattle industry develop? – Ranching on the plains By the 1870s, ranchers began to move their cattle herds onto the Great Plains. Lots of reasons for this;1. Driving cattle from Texas had become more and more difficult. Homesteaders have started to build their farms across the routes of the cattle trails.
352 – A famous rancher called John Ilife has proved that cattle can survive the long winters on the Great Plains. He has sold beef to the railroad builders and to the Sioux Indians on the reservations.3 – The northern plains are empty. There are very few homesteaders there. The Indians have moved onto Reservations. Hunters have shot many buffalo. The grass is good and there is plenty of it.
364 – The Transcontinental railroad crosses the northern plains 4 – The Transcontinental railroad crosses the northern plains. This makes it easier to send my cattle to market.5 – The cold winters of the northern plains kill the disease carrying ticks that affect my cattle. With healthier cattle I can breed Texas Longhorns with other, fatter breeds.
37How did the cattle industry develop? The end of the open range In the early 1880s – was a boom time for cattle ranching and huge profits made.However as more ranchers moved to take more land… they began to worry about the future.
38Overgrazing – by 1883, so many cattle were grazing on the plains that the grass could not grow properly.Drought – During the Summer of 1883, there was a drought. The grass became very dry and cattle went hungryThe Winter of – The awful winter killed thousands of weakened cattle. Many ranchers lost their herd and went out of business.
39Unemployment – The smaller ranches required fewer cowboys Unemployment – The smaller ranches required fewer cowboys. Many lost their jobs. The days of the open range were over.Barbed wire fences – After the winter, the open range was divided into smaller ranches, each with fewer cattle. Barbed wire was cheap and strong, was used to fence the land. Fences made it easier for ranchers to manage their herds.Wind Pumps – wind pumps were used to supply water. Now the cattle could be kept anywhere on the plains
40Who were the cowboys?= men who worked on the cattle drives and ranchesMany had left the southern states at the end of the civil war and many were black Americans and mexicans.Worked out of doors in all weathersDifficult life and poorly paid
41Work of a cowboyCattle branding – As there were not fences, cattle had to be clearly identified. The cowboys applied the ranch brand mark to young cattleRound up – Cowboys rounded up the cattle in the spring and summer. They drove the cattle to the nearest railroad for saleLine riding – the cowboys kept watch over the ranch boundary. They herded stray cattle back onto the ranch and sometimes had to deal with cattle rustlers and wild animals.
42QUESTIONS;Why did Texas cattlemen drive their cattle north during the 1860s?How did the cattle industry develop?Why was their and end to the open range?What work did cowboys do?
43Past questions;1 - Use your own knowledge to explain why cattle drives from Texas began in (8 marks)1ci What impact did cattle ranching have on the settlement of the Plains in the years ? (12 marks)1cii Why did cattle ranching on the Plains change so much in the 1870s and 1880s? (12 marks)
44PAST QUESTION;Was Joseph McCoy the most important individual in the development of the cattle industry, ? Explain your answer.- In 1846, Charles Goodnight drove 2000 head of cattle to Fort Sumner to feed the Indians- Abilene was founded in 1867 by Joseph McCoy- Hereford bulls were brought from Britain in the 1970s by John Iliff
45Past question3. Why did the life and work of the cowboy change in the years 1865–95? Explain your answer.- In 1866 cattle drives began from Texas- By 1880 there were approximately 4,500,000 cattle on ranches on the Great Plains- During 1885 and 1886 there were huge losses of cattle through drought and a severe winter