Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 – The United States"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 11 – The United States Section NotesVideoPhysical GeographyHistory and CultureThe United States TodayImpact of ImmigrationMapsThe United States: PoliticalThe United States: PhysicalThe United States: ClimateNatural Hazards in the United StatesWestern ExpansionRegions of the United StatesLand Use and ResourcesThe United StatesAssessment MapWorld AlmanacPopulation of Major U.S. CitiesQuick FactsChapter 11 Visual SummaryImagesGrand CanyonTornado DiagramDiverse America
2Physical Geography The Big Idea The United States is a large country with diverse physical features, climates, and resources.Main IdeasMajor physical features of the United States include mountains, rivers, and plains.The climate of the United States is wetter in the East and South and drier in the West.The United States is rich in natural resources such as farmland, oil, forests, and minerals.
3Main Idea 1: Major physical features of the United States include mountains, rivers, and plains. The United States is the third largest country.Physical features from east to west include:Flat, close to sea levelRises to a higher level called the PiedmontAtlanticCoastal PlainMain mountain range in the EastMillions of years of erosion so that highest peak is about 6,700 feetAppalachianMountainsInterior PlainsFilled with hills, lakes, and rivers
4Physical Features, continued The largest group of freshwater lakes in the worldImportant for trade between the United States and CanadaGreat LakesNorth America’s longest and most important riverHas many tributaries, or smaller streams or rivers that flow into a larger stream or riverE.g., the Missouri and Ohio rivers which help drain the entire Interior Plains.These rivers deposit rich silt that creates the fertile farmlands of the Interior Plains.MississippiRiverGreat PlainsAt higher elevation has vast areas of grasslands
5Physical Features West of the Rockies RockyMountainsEnormous rugged mountain ranges that rise above 14,000 feetA line of high peaks in the Rocky MountainsA continental divide is an area of high ground that divides the flow of rivers towards opposite ends of a continent. Rivers to the east empty into the Mississippi River and to the west into the Pacific Ocean.ContinentalDivideAt 20,320 feet, Alaska’s Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in North America.Hawaii formed by volcanoes millions of years ago.Alaska andHawaii
6Main Idea 2: The climate of the United States is wetter in the East and South and drier in the West. Northeast: Humid continental climate with snowy winters and warm, humid summersSouth: Humid subtropical climate with milder winters and warm, humid summersFlorida: Warm all yearInterior PlainsMost of the region: A humid continental climateGreat Plains: Hot and dry summersWestWest: Mostly dryPacific Northwest coast: A wet, mild coastal climateAlaska: Sub-arctic and tundra climatesHawaii: A warm, tropical climate
7Main Idea 3: The United States is rich in natural resources such as farmland, oil, forests, and minerals.Alaska, California, or Louisiana: oilThe U.S. is a major oil producer but uses more oil than it produces.Appalachians and Rockies: minerals including coalCoal supplies the energy for more than half of the electricity produced in the U.S.The U.S. has about 25 percent of the world’s coal reserves.Forests: lumberFarmlands: wheat, corn, soybeans, cotton, fruits, and vegetables
8History and Culture The Big Idea Democratic ideas and immigration have shaped the history and culture of the United States.Main IdeasThe United States is the world’s first modern democracy.The people and culture of the United States are very diverse.
9Main Idea 1: The United States is the world’s first modern democracy. 1500s: Europeans settlers established colonies, or territories inhabited and controlled by people from a foreign land.Mid-1700s: The British Empire included more than a dozen colonies along the Atlantic coast.Boston and New York became major seaports.Plantations, or large farms that grow mainly one crop, harvested tobacco, rice, or cotton using enslaved Africans.July 1776: The colonial representatives adopted the Declaration of Independence, which did not give rights to everyone, but was a great step toward equality and justice.1781: General George Washington's army defeated the British in the Revolutionary War, which had started in Massachusetts and spread west and south.Britain recognized the independence of the U.S. and granted the U.S. all its land east of the Mississippi River.
10Expansion and Industrial Growth These first settlers who traveled west for land and plentiful resources were called pioneers.Groups of families undertook the harsh trip along the 2,000-mile Oregon Trail.Late 1840s: Discovery of gold brought tens of thousands of people to California.1850: More than 23 million peopleLate 1880s: Major steel, oil, and textile productionMost industrial cities in Northeast and Midwest.The development of waterways and railroads helped industry and expansion into interior.Late 1800s/early 1900s: Immigration from Europe creates a culturally diverse nation.
11Wars and PeaceThe United States fought in several wars during the 1900s.Many Americans died in World Wars I and II.The United States and the Soviet Union became rivals in the Cold War.1950s: War in Korea1960s and 1970s: War in VietnamEarly 1990s: The collapse of the Soviet Union marked the end of the Cold War.1991: The United States fought Iraq in the Persian Gulf War.2003: United States invaded Iraq and is helping Iraqis rebuild their country today.Today the United States is one of the most powerful members of the United Nations.
12U.S. Government and Citizenship A limited, democratic government with an elected president and CongressThe Constitution defines the powers of the federal government.The federal government handles issues affecting the whole country.States, counties, and cities have their own governments that provide state and local services, such as trash collection, road building, electricity, and public transportation.GovernmentU.S. citizens have the right to vote from age 18.Citizens are encouraged to participate in their government.Participation is essential to democratic government.RightsAndResponsibilities
13Main Idea 2: The people and culture of the United States are very diverse. Hispanic AmericansMany came from Mexico, Cuba, and other Latin American countries.Most live in the southwestern states that border Mexico.Native AmericansFor thousands of years, Native Americans were the only people in the Americas.Today most live in the west, particularly in Arizona and New Mexico.African AmericansAfrican Americans live in every region, but southern states and many large cities have a higher percentage.European DescendentsAbout 7 out of every 10 peopleAsian AmericansLive mostly in California
14Language and Religion Language Religion After English, Spanish is the most widely spoken language.About 17 million Americans speak Spanish.Over 50 million are bilingual, or speak two languages.LanguageMost people are Christians. Some are Jewish or Muslim. A small percentage is Hindu or Buddhist.Many religious holidays: Christmas, Easter, Hanukkah, Yom Kippur, Rosh Hashanah, Ramadan and the feast called ‘Id al-FitrAfrican Americans also celebrate Kwanzaa, a holiday that is based on a traditional African festival.Religion
15Food, Music, and Popular Culture Diverse ethnic foods like Mexican tacos, Italian pasta, or Japanese sushi are now part of the American diet.Music from around the world have also influenced American culture.American musical styles include blues, jazz, rock, and hip hop.Food AndMusicAmerican culture, such as movies, television programs, and sports, are popular abroad.E.g., Star Wars seen by millions, baseball in Japan, Starbucks in almost every major city, and an MTV channel in AsiaPopularCulture
16The United States Today The Big IdeaThe United States has four main regions and faces opportunities and challenges.Main IdeasThe United States has four regions—the Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.The United States has a strong economy and a powerful military but is facing the challenge of world terrorism.
17Main Idea 1: The United States has four regions—the Northeast, South, Midwest, and West. Industrial and financial centersEconomy: banks, investment firms, insurance companies, respected universitiesRich farmland, coal, steel production, and fishingMost densely populated region in the U.S. with 40 million peopleCities from Boston to Washington, D.C. form a megalopolis, or a string of large cities that have grown together.Cities founded in colonial era became important seaports.The SouthRich farmlands grow cotton, tobacco, and citrus fruit.This region is becoming more urban and industrialized.Atlanta metropolis has grown from 1 million in 1960 to 4 million today.Research Triangle in North Carolina is growing high-tech area.Texas Gulf Coast and lower Mississippi Rover areas have huge oil refineries and petrochemical plants.Important trade centers with Mexico and Central and South American countries. E.g., Miami
18The Midwest and the West One of the most productive farming regions in the worldCrops: corn, wheat, and soybeansDairy farms in Wisconsin, Michigan, and MinnesotaMajor cities are located near the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers and the Great Lakes because products are easily shipped to and from these centers.Detroit, Michigan, is the country’s leading automobile producer.Chicago, Illinois, is the third largest city in the nation.The WestLarge open spaces with major cities on the Pacific CoastMore than 10 percent of the nation lives in California, where farming, technology, and entertainment are important industries.Economy of other states: ranching and growing wheatMineral resources: coal, oil, gold, silver, copper, and othersOregon and Washington: forestry and fishingSeattle: Washington’s largest city with many industries.Alaska: oil, forests, and fishHawaii: pineapple, sugarcane, and tourism
19Main Idea 3: The United States has a strong economy and a powerful military but is facing the challenge of world terrorism.Largest economy in the worldMany natural resources, modern technologies, and jobsBeneficial trade with Canada, Mexico, China, Japan, and Europe1992: The North American Free Trade Agreement, NAFTA, has made trade easier with Mexico and Canada.EconomyA powerful military to protect the U.S.Helps other countries defend themselvesMilitary
20TerrorismSeptember 11, 2001: Terrorists hijacked four American jets and crashed them into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.The hijackers wanted to disrupt the U.S. economy with terrorism, or violent attacks that cause fear.President George W. Bush declared war on terrorism and established the Department of Homeland Security.The U.S. sent forces to Afghanistan to kill or capture members of al Qaeda, a terrorist group, and established a new democratic government in the country.2003: Bush believed Iraq was another threat and ordered an invasion of Iraq.World leaders are working with the U.S. to combat terrorism.