Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 – The United States Section Notes Physical Geography History and Culture The United States Today Video Impact of Immigration Images Grand Canyon."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 11 – The United States Section Notes Physical Geography History and Culture The United States Today Video Impact of Immigration Images Grand Canyon Tornado Diagram Diverse America Quick Facts Chapter 11 Visual Summary Maps The United States: Political The United States: Physical The United States: Climate Natural Hazards in the United States Western Expansion Regions of the United States Land Use and Resources The United States Assessment Map World Almanac Population of Major U.S. Cities
Physical Geography The Big Idea The United States is a large country with diverse physical features, climates, and resources. Main Ideas Major physical features of the United States include mountains, rivers, and plains. The climate of the United States is wetter in the East and South and drier in the West. The United States is rich in natural resources such as farmland, oil, forests, and minerals.
Main Idea 1: Major physical features of the United States include mountains, rivers, and plains. Main mountain range in the East Millions of years of erosion so that highest peak is about 6,700 feet Atlantic Coastal Plain Flat, close to sea level Rises to a higher level called the Piedmont Appalachian Mountains Filled with hills, lakes, and rivers Interior Plains The United States is the third largest country. Physical features from east to west include:
At higher elevation has vast areas of grasslands Mississippi River North America’s longest and most important river Has many tributaries, or smaller streams or rivers that flow into a larger stream or river E.g., the Missouri and Ohio rivers which help drain the entire Interior Plains. These rivers deposit rich silt that creates the fertile farmlands of the Interior Plains. Great Plains The largest group of freshwater lakes in the world Important for trade between the United States and Canada Great Lakes Physical Features, continued
A line of high peaks in the Rocky Mountains A continental divide is an area of high ground that divides the flow of rivers towards opposite ends of a continent. Rivers to the east empty into the Mississippi River and to the west into the Pacific Ocean. Continental Divide At 20,320 feet, Alaska’s Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in North America. Hawaii formed by volcanoes millions of years ago. Alaska and Hawaii Enormous rugged mountain ranges that rise above 14,000 feet Rocky Mountains Physical Features West of the Rockies
Main Idea 2: The climate of the United States is wetter in the East and South and drier in the West. East and South Northeast: Humid continental climate with snowy winters and warm, humid summers South: Humid subtropical climate with milder winters and warm, humid summers Florida: Warm all year Interior Plains Most of the region: A humid continental climate Great Plains: Hot and dry summers West West: Mostly dry Pacific Northwest coast: A wet, mild coastal climate Alaska: Sub-arctic and tundra climates Hawaii: A warm, tropical climate
Main Idea 3: The United States is rich in natural resources such as farmland, oil, forests, and minerals. Alaska, California, or Louisiana: oil –The U.S. is a major oil producer but uses more oil than it produces. Appalachians and Rockies: minerals including coal –Coal supplies the energy for more than half of the electricity produced in the U.S. –The U.S. has about 25 percent of the world’s coal reserves. Forests: lumber Farmlands: wheat, corn, soybeans, cotton, fruits, and vegetables
History and Culture The Big Idea Democratic ideas and immigration have shaped the history and culture of the United States. Main Ideas The United States is the world’s first modern democracy. The people and culture of the United States are very diverse.
Main Idea 1: The United States is the world’s first modern democracy. 1500s: Europeans settlers established colonies, or territories inhabited and controlled by people from a foreign land. Mid-1700s: The British Empire included more than a dozen colonies along the Atlantic coast. Boston and New York became major seaports. Plantations, or large farms that grow mainly one crop, harvested tobacco, rice, or cotton using enslaved Africans. July 1776: The colonial representatives adopted the Declaration of Independence, which did not give rights to everyone, but was a great step toward equality and justice. 1781: General George Washington's army defeated the British in the Revolutionary War, which had started in Massachusetts and spread west and south. Britain recognized the independence of the U.S. and granted the U.S. all its land east of the Mississippi River.
Expansion and Industrial Growth These first settlers who traveled west for land and plentiful resources were called pioneers. Groups of families undertook the harsh trip along the 2,000-mile Oregon Trail. Late 1840s: Discovery of gold brought tens of thousands of people to California. 1850: More than 23 million people Late 1880s: Major steel, oil, and textile production Most industrial cities in Northeast and Midwest. The development of waterways and railroads helped industry and expansion into interior. Late 1800s/early 1900s: Immigration from Europe creates a culturally diverse nation.
Wars and Peace The United States fought in several wars during the 1900s. Many Americans died in World Wars I and II. The United States and the Soviet Union became rivals in the Cold War. –1950s: War in Korea –1960s and 1970s: War in Vietnam Early 1990s: The collapse of the Soviet Union marked the end of the Cold War. 1991: The United States fought Iraq in the Persian Gulf War. 2003: United States invaded Iraq and is helping Iraqis rebuild their country today. Today the United States is one of the most powerful members of the United Nations.
U.S. citizens have the right to vote from age 18. Citizens are encouraged to participate in their government. Participation is essential to democratic government. Government A limited, democratic government with an elected president and Congress The Constitution defines the powers of the federal government. The federal government handles issues affecting the whole country. States, counties, and cities have their own governments that provide state and local services, such as trash collection, road building, electricity, and public transportation. Rights And Responsibilities U.S. Government and Citizenship
Main Idea 2: The people and culture of the United States are very diverse. Hispanic Americans Many came from Mexico, Cuba, and other Latin American countries. Most live in the southwestern states that border Mexico. Native Americans For thousands of years, Native Americans were the only people in the Americas. Today most live in the west, particularly in Arizona and New Mexico. African Americans African Americans live in every region, but southern states and many large cities have a higher percentage. European Descendents About 7 out of every 10 people Asian Americans Live mostly in California
Most people are Christians. Some are Jewish or Muslim. A small percentage is Hindu or Buddhist. Many religious holidays: Christmas, Easter, Hanukkah, Yom Kippur, Rosh Hashanah, Ramadan and the feast called ‘Id al-Fitr African Americans also celebrate Kwanzaa, a holiday that is based on a traditional African festival. Language After English, Spanish is the most widely spoken language. About 17 million Americans speak Spanish. Over 50 million are bilingual, or speak two languages. Religion Language and Religion
Diverse ethnic foods like Mexican tacos, Italian pasta, or Japanese sushi are now part of the American diet. Music from around the world have also influenced American culture. American musical styles include blues, jazz, rock, and hip hop. Food And Music American culture, such as movies, television programs, and sports, are popular abroad. E.g., Star Wars seen by millions, baseball in Japan, Starbucks in almost every major city, and an MTV channel in Asia Popular Culture Food, Music, and Popular Culture
The United States Today The Big Idea The United States has four main regions and faces opportunities and challenges. Main Ideas The United States has four regions—the Northeast, South, Midwest, and West. The United States has a strong economy and a powerful military but is facing the challenge of world terrorism.
Main Idea 1: The United States has four regions—the Northeast, South, Midwest, and West. The Northeast Industrial and financial centers Economy: banks, investment firms, insurance companies, respected universities Rich farmland, coal, steel production, and fishing Most densely populated region in the U.S. with 40 million people Cities from Boston to Washington, D.C. form a megalopolis, or a string of large cities that have grown together. Cities founded in colonial era became important seaports. The South Rich farmlands grow cotton, tobacco, and citrus fruit. This region is becoming more urban and industrialized. –Atlanta metropolis has grown from 1 million in 1960 to 4 million today. –Research Triangle in North Carolina is growing high- tech area. –Texas Gulf Coast and lower Mississippi Rover areas have huge oil refineries and petrochemical plants. Important trade centers with Mexico and Central and South American countries. E.g., Miami
The Midwest One of the most productive farming regions in the world Crops: corn, wheat, and soybeans Dairy farms in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota Major cities are located near the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers and the Great Lakes because products are easily shipped to and from these centers. –Detroit, Michigan, is the country’s leading automobile producer. –Chicago, Illinois, is the third largest city in the nation. The West Large open spaces with major cities on the Pacific Coast More than 10 percent of the nation lives in California, where farming, technology, and entertainment are important industries. Economy of other states: ranching and growing wheat Mineral resources: coal, oil, gold, silver, copper, and others Oregon and Washington: forestry and fishing Seattle: Washington’s largest city with many industries. Alaska: oil, forests, and fish Hawaii: pineapple, sugarcane, and tourism The Midwest and the West
Main Idea 3: The United States has a strong economy and a powerful military but is facing the challenge of world terrorism. A powerful military to protect the U.S. Helps other countries defend themselves Economy Largest economy in the world Many natural resources, modern technologies, and jobs Beneficial trade with Canada, Mexico, China, Japan, and Europe 1992: The North American Free Trade Agreement, NAFTA, has made trade easier with Mexico and Canada. Military
Terrorism September 11, 2001: Terrorists hijacked four American jets and crashed them into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. The hijackers wanted to disrupt the U.S. economy with terrorism, or violent attacks that cause fear. President George W. Bush declared war on terrorism and established the Department of Homeland Security. The U.S. sent forces to Afghanistan to kill or capture members of al Qaeda, a terrorist group, and established a new democratic government in the country. 2003: Bush believed Iraq was another threat and ordered an invasion of Iraq. World leaders are working with the U.S. to combat terrorism.