Presentation on theme: "Marine World Heritage in the Western Indian Ocean Initial assessment and scoping World Heritage Center marine programme UNESCO Partners Flanders Marine."— Presentation transcript:
Marine World Heritage in the Western Indian Ocean Initial assessment and scoping World Heritage Center marine programme UNESCO Partners Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ) IODE/UNESCO Meetings/workshop: World Heritage focal points meeting Maputo, 8 August 2012 Nairobi Convention focal points meeting Maputo, 9 August 2012 Western Indian Ocean Consortium (WIOC) of NGOs Maputo, 10 August 2012 Facilitated by: Dr. Fanny Douvere, World Heritage Center Dr. David Obura, CORDIO East Africa
OVERALL AGENDA 8 August – focal points of the World Heritage and Nairobi Conventions to foster contact between the World Heritage and Nairobi Conventions through presentation of the study results to identify opportunities for integration of activities under the Conventions in support of transboundary marine conservation in the Western Indian Ocean to identify opportunities for the next two days 9 August – Nairobi Convention focal points meeting formal presentation of study results to Nairobi Convention approaches to transboundary marine World Heritage sites 10 August – WIOC* (Consortium) - regional NGOs partnership presentation of study results and opportunities support from regional marine conservation and research NGOs for transboundary marine World Heritage site *WIOC = Consortium For The Conservation Of Coastal And Marine Ecosystems In The Western Indian Ocean
1)October 2011 – May 2012; Initial assessment and scoping – study and report, to be presented; 2)June – December 2012; governance and institutional foundations for transboundary marine WH 2013 onwards; concrete steps towards marine WH nominations from countries of the region. Marine World Heritage in the Western Indian Ocean 3 stages To guide future steps: Please provide any/all feedback, on discussions, documents, etc: Note paper; /typed comments – to
Guidance documents 1.Assessing Marine World Heritage from an Ecosystem Perspective: The Western Indian Ocean (2012 ) Obura DO, Church JE, Gabrié C. Ocean World Heritage Centre, United Nations Education, Science and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 124 pp. whc.unesco.org/uploads/activities/documents/activity pdf whc.unesco.org/uploads/activities/documents/activity pdf Draft brochure – revized version, for use in regional meetings (e.g. at December COP of NC); September Marine World Heritage: Toward a representative, balanced and credible World Heritage List (2012). Spalding M. World Heritage Centre. UNESCO, Paris. Obtain the report at: activities/documents/activity pdf Marine World Heritage Thematic Study (2013). Abdulla A, Obura DO, Berstky B (to be released in. IUCN i
Assessing Marine World Heritage from an Ecosystem Perspective: The Western Indian Ocean (2012 ) Obura DO, Church JE, Gabrié C. Ocean World Heritage Centre, United Nations Education, Science and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 124 pp. whc.unesco.org/uploads/activities/documents/activity pdf i whc.unesco.org/uploads/activities/documents/activity pdf #Criteria viiiGeology and oceanography ixEcology and evolution xHabitats and conservation Features 1.Geology – plate tectonics and hotspot activity; 2.Oceanography – major currents and processes; 3.Biodiversity and biogeography – number, distribution and endemism of species; genetic patterns; 4.Habitats – major and unique or distinctive habitats and ecosystems; 5.Species – species of special concern (unique, endemic, threatened), unique patterns and behaviours on a global scale; Representation – representation of some of the above features, mosaic of features typical of the region that is distinct from other parts of the world.
24 1) Geology Plate Tectonics Plates – active spreading in the Central Indian Ocean ridge, the Indian and Australian plates are rifting away from the African plate Age of the Ocean floor (blue = 180 my, red = recent) 180 mya – Madagascar separated from Africa 120 mya – Australia separated from Madagascar-India, mya – India separated from Madagascar and bumped into Asia. One of the fastest seafloor spreading rates ever recorded. The oldest coastlines of the Indian Ocean are on the East Coast of Africa, and the Mozambique channel. Mascarene-Reunion Hotspot Deccan Traps Large Igneous Province (India) – Lakshadweep – Maldives chains (57-60 mya) northern Mascarene ridge (45-65mya), Chagos (48mya) Saya de Malha (45 mya), Nazareth and Cargados Carajos (34 mya), Mauritius (7-8 mya) Reunion (0-2 mya)
2) Oceanography Principal current systems and monsoon seasonality Gyres in the Mozambique channel – a strong barrier/modifier stretching across the main current (SEC) from east to west. Roman et al. Schott & McCreary 2001
29 3) Biodiversity and biogeography Ecoregional classification MEOW provinces
Sites of potential Outstanding Universal Value 1) Mozambique Channel Mascarene Plateau Saha de Malha bank ‘Classical sites’ Kiunga-Lamu archipelago, Kenya; Antongil Bay, Madagascar; Kwazulu-Natal Sardine Run, South Africa; Kerguelen-Crozet archipelagos ‘Disclaimers’ These analyses are necessarily coarse – more work may identify/justify other sites and features Names and sites are indicative – definitive work on boundaries will be essential World Heritage is a country- driven process, so national leadership & endorsement is essential More work is yet to be done on fully incorporating marine features into WH OUV and Criteria
Energetic and variable circular currents (eddies, approx km across) High connectivity (water flows in all directions) Highest diversity coral reefs in the northern channel - second hotspot of tropical marine biodiversity globally Open-water food webs highly productive and dynamic Large concentrations of fish, turtles, marine mammals and seabirds (spectacular natural phenomena) the coelacanth (living fossil) support the coastal and national economies of the bordering countries (fisheries and tourism). 1) Mozambique Channel
Mozambique channel – key sites of potential OUV 1.Quirimbas - Mtwara 2.Northern Madagascar 3.The Comoro Archipelago 4.The Iles Éparses (Scattered Islands) 5.Tofo – Bazaruto, Mozambique 6.Madagascar Plateau (the Deep South) Characteristics of these sites: Illustrate the geology and oceanography of the Mozambique Channel Contain differentiated biological features and values of potential OUV Altogether they capture the full range of values of the Mozambique channel, hence a serial (transboundary) site Specifics of values/locations included and boundaries need detailed local-level work.
Managing World Heritage To move forward, some of the additional components to put in place: Commitment of State Party; Maintaining the integrity of a site (spatial, threats); Putting in place an effective management regime; Well-managed use (sustainability) is compatible with WH. rigorous evaluation (IUCN), including of management capacity over the short to long term Three ‘pillars’ of World Heritage: 1.The values and criteria that they meet (all the preceding pages) 2.The integrity of a site (spatial scale and threats); 3.The management capacity at local level, and commitment at national levels
Concluding comments Two regions of outstanding importance globally. Key sites within these regions with the highest OUV and integrity. MANAGEMENT is the key to World Heritage listing Objectives/questions for this meeting: Trans-boundary issues for marine conservation and management Opportunities for trans-boundary marine World Heritage sites in the Western Indian Ocean Synergies with the Nairobi Convention and NGOs to follow up on Days 2 and 3 Identification of questions/issues for followup from the participants 39
Questions/feedback from the meeting Trans-boundary issues for marine conservation and management What existing trans-boundary initiatives are there/have there been? Lessons learned? What institutional/legal mechanisms are there in the countries to facilitate this? In regional blocs (NC, SADC, IOC, etc) Opportunities for transboundary marine World Heritage sites in the Western Indian Ocean Do you think it might work in your country/the region Are there any existing WH trans-boundary initiatives, or single country but adjacent to a border? Are they compatible with those presented here? Example from the field – Congo basin (Martin Nicoll) What other institutions/people should be included in this discussion? With national responsibility? With technical/stakeholder/financing/other contribution? Feedback on the specific proposals in this study Synergies with the Nairobi Convention and NGOs to follow up on Days 2 and 3 What opportunities are there in the framework of the NC – from the countries’ perspectives? This phase of the World Heritage project – next 4 months – NC science to policy workshop, COP, next workplan? What can the role of NGOs/stakeholders be – at national levels, in inter- governmental/trans-boundary process? Any questions/calls to the NGOs? Feedback: Note paper; /typed comments – to