Presentation on theme: "Launching the Argo Armada An array of profiling floats to observe the global oceans ….in real time A presentation to the Joint Technical Commission on."— Presentation transcript:
Launching the Argo Armada An array of profiling floats to observe the global oceans ….in real time A presentation to the Joint Technical Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology June 25, 2001 by Stan Wilson, NOAA,
Many people and institutions have contributed to this presentation. They include: Howard Freeland, Dean Roemmich, Muriel Cole, Russ Davis, Mike Johnson, Kuh Kim, Syd Levitus, Tim Liu, Breck Owens, Steve Piotrowicz, Steve Riser, Alf Simpson, Uwe Send, Detlef Stammer, Jon Turton, Frank Wentz, and the International Argo Science Team. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Marine Environment Data Service, National Geographic Magazine, NOAA Climate Prediction Center, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Webb Research, and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. For more information:
We are entering a new era in ocean observations. 1870 - 1970 The Century of Undersampling 1970 - 2000 Transition to Large Programs -- MODE, NORPAX, WOCE, TOGA… -- Satellites as an observational tool -- Modeling as an observational complement -- Recognition of El Niño as a global issue
We are entering a new era in ocean observations. 1870 - 1970 The Century of Undersampling 1970 - 2000 Transition to Large Programs 2000 - Global & Operational Programs -- WCRP/CLIVAR, GODAE, Argo…. -- GCOS, GOOS…. -- WMO/IOC JCOMM -- Ocean.US
We have a capability to observe the sea surface--globally & ~synoptically.
While some floats may ground on shoaling topography, some skip over it. Float parking depth ~1,000 m; sill depth in Tsugaru Strait ~140m. Courtesy of Howard Freeland and Kuh Kim.
Argo will supply the following properties globally, in real-time, and without restriction. Temperature and salinity profiles. Velocity estimates. From these, the time-varying ocean circulation--at the broad scale, not mesoscale--can be determined. In effect, Argo will be a Real-Time Upper-Ocean WOCE.
Argo will have many applications. Improved seasonal/interannual forecasts.
We routinely observe the Tropical Pacific to produce El Niño/La Niña-based forecasts
When can we achieve the 3,000-float array? Assuming 90% of the floats live four years (the other 10% fail early), it is necessary to provide floats at a sustained rate of 825 per year. Funding for Argo floats by year: FY99 -- 55 FY00 -- 255 FY01 -- 535 FY02 -- 703 (proposed) We could achieve global coverage by the end of 2005.
What does Argo cost? Each float costs approximately $25 K over a 4-yr life (including hardware, deployment & data management) Cost per profile ~ $25K / (36 profiles/yr x 4 yrs) ~ $170 (similar XBT cost per profile ~ $100) Cost of the 3,000-float array ~ $20 M / year
We are seeking national commitments to operational global ocean observing systems. An essential element is building national consensus, bridging between different agencies in each nation: research and operational oceanic and atmospheric civilian and Naval weather and climate space and in-situ
WMO & IOC have endorsed/accepted Argo... As an important component of the operational observing system of GOOS and GCOS. As a major contribution to CLIVAR and other research programs. Assuming that the data and derived products from Argo floats are... “freely available in real-time and delayed mode”
The IOC Resolution states: -- “as with existing surface drifting buoys some…[floats]...may drift into waters under national jurisdiction [ie, an EEZ]…” -- “…concerned coastal states must be informed in advance...of all deployments of...floats which might drift into [their] waters…” -- The IOC Resolution was silent concerning the issue of deployment of floats within EEZs.
How will we co-ordinate deployments? Argo Information Centre established under JCOMM Mathieu Belbéoch hired as full-time Technical Coordinator to provide services for Argo, just as they are for DBCP & SOOP AIC to provide notification for, and assist with, float deployments http://argo-forum.jcommops.org
What are the Argo Implementation Planning Meetings? Pacific Ocean -- Tokyo, April 13-14, 2000 Atlantic Ocean -- Paris, July 10-11, 2000 Indian Ocean -- Hyderabad, July 26-27, 2001
Deployment plans for 2001 compared with EEZ coverage in the western Pacific.
Consensus Approach for Deployment in the Central & Western Pacific The Float-Providing Countries will: Provide advance notice of plans for ships & aircraft coming into the collective EEZ of the Pacific Island Region for float deployment Provide assistance identifying and linking with operational forecast centers which will generate forecasts using Argo data. The Pacific Island Nations will: Concur with plans for ships & aircraft coming into the collective EEZ of the Pacific Island Region for float deployment.