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CHAPTER 18 INDUSTRY & URBAN GROWTH CHAPTER 18 I CAN STATEMENT I CAN UNDERSTAND HOW INDUSTRIALIZATION INCREASED THE SPEED OF CHANGE IN THE UNITED STATES.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 18 INDUSTRY & URBAN GROWTH CHAPTER 18 I CAN STATEMENT I CAN UNDERSTAND HOW INDUSTRIALIZATION INCREASED THE SPEED OF CHANGE IN THE UNITED STATES."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 18 INDUSTRY & URBAN GROWTH CHAPTER 18 I CAN STATEMENT I CAN UNDERSTAND HOW INDUSTRIALIZATION INCREASED THE SPEED OF CHANGE IN THE UNITED STATES

2 Bullet points p. 637Read pgs

3 Section1 A New Industrial Revolution I CAN UNDERSTAND HOW CONDITIONS IN THE U.S. SPURRED THE GROWTH OF INDUSTRY

4 ASSIGNMENT Do Time Line of inventions From 1851 – Due Thursday. At least 15 items.

5 TIME LINE EXAMPLE

6 NEW INVENTIONS & DISCOVERIES Bessemer Process – Steel – 1851 Oil in Pennsylvania – 1859 Sholes’ typewriter Transcontinental RR – 1869 Bell’s telephone Edison’s phonograph – 1877 Edison light bulb – 1879 Edison power plant – 1882 Matzeliger’s shoe making machine – st practical auto – Benz – Germany Eastman’s camera – st U.S. production car – Duryea – st motion picture camera – Louis Lumiere – France st powered flight – Wright brothers – 1903 Assembly line perfected – Henry Ford 1913

7 Bessemer Process

8 Oil in Pennsylvania

9 Sholes’ typewriter

10 Transcontinental RR – 1869

11 Bell’s telephone

12 Edison’s phonograph – 1877

13 Edison light bulb – 1879

14 Edison power plant – 1882

15 Matzeliger’s shoe making machine – 1883

16 1 st practical auto – Benz – Germany

17 Eastman’s camera – 1888

18 1 st U.S. production car – Duryea – 1893 Charles – born Canton, IL 1861

19 Louis Lumiere – Movie Camera France

20 1 st powered flight – Wright brothers – 1903

21 Assembly line perfected – Henry Ford 1913

22 Bullet points p. 637Read pgs

23 Ch 18 Sec 4 The New Immigrants I can understand how the experience of immigrants was both positive and negative

24 Statistics Between 1865 and 1915 – 25 million immigrants to U.S. This is more than the U.S. population in 1850

25 Reasons LAND Amount of European farmland shrinking while populations grew RELIGIOUS FREEDOM Jews from Russia Christians from Turkey

26 Reasons POLITICAL UNREST 1910 Mexican Revolution JOBS U.S. companies recruited from overseas

27 Reasons FREEDOM Drew people who wanted democracy and liberty

28 Immigrant Divisions Early 1800’s Most from Northern and Western Europe Most Protestant Spoke English Knew some democracy Late 1800’s From Southern or Eastern Europe Most Catholic or Jewish Few spoke English Little knowledge of democracy

29 A New Life Difficult decision to leave Miserable trip Most took trip in steerage – large compartments that usually held cattle

30 Difficult Trip Crowded conditions Little ventilation Sea sick Easy to catch diseases

31 Ellis Island Arrivals from Europe through Ellis Island Physical examinations Disabled or sick sent back

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36 Who Came

37 Where Did They Go 2/3 stayed in cities Mulberry St. Little Italy

38 ASSIMILATION Immigration Societies helped Older people clung with traditions Younger people adapted easily Education

39 EDUCATION “ The essence of American opportunity, the treasure that no thief can touch... Surer, safer than bread or butter.”

40 Naturalization 5 year wait (unless joined military – then 1 year) Speak English Give up previous citizenship Law abiding

41 Naturalization 2 witnesses Not a polygamist Not an anarchist Minor children citizens when parents are

42 Contributions

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44 NEW FOODS Spaghetti Chow Mein Bagels

45 Famous Immigrants Alexander Graham Bell – Scotland Samuel Goldwyn – Poland Louis Mayer – Ukraine Arturo Toscanini – Italy Leo Baekeland - Belgium

46 Nativism The policy of protecting the interests of native inhabitants against those of immigrants. Political thought against immigrants BECAUSE

47 Nativism 1.Different languages 2. “ religions 3. “ customs 4.Immigrants are violent 5. “ are criminals 6. “ are anarchists WHAT DOES THIS SOUND LIKE?

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49 Response 1.Chinese Exclusion Act – Immigrants required to read and write – Violence against immigrants 4.Discrimination

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53 Bullet Points p. 637Read pgs

54 Ch 18 Sec 2 Big Business & Organized Labor I CAN UNDERSTAND HOW BIG BUSINESS CHANGED THE WORKPLACE AND GAVE RISE TO ORGANIZED LABOR

55 Ch 18 Sec 2 Business were no longer small shops producing goods Now business was factories, employing many and producing goods

56 How did they do it? Corporations – Businesses owned by many people, investors. EXAMPLE THE MADDOX WIDGET FACTORY

57 BANKING Banks loaned money to corporations Corporations paid it back with interest What is interest?

58 Growth of Big Business Monopolies Businesses that controlled all of the business Example – The Maddox Widget business owns the factory, the supplies to make the widgets, the shipping of the widgets and the sale of the widgets.

59 Examples Andrew Carnegie Started in RR’s Gained control of steel making industry Made more steel than all steel mills in England WHAT DID HE OWN?

60 EXAMPLES JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER Age 23, invested in an oil refinery Profits bought other oil companies Created many corporations controlled by one board of directors This is called a trust Standard Oil Co.

61 EXAMPLES Meatpacking Sugar refining Copper wire

62 Trusts and Monopolies The Debate GOOD Builds the economy Creates jobs Keeps prices low Consumers can afford products BAD Threat to free enterprise Unfairly eliminates competition Corrupts politicians

63 SOCIAL DARWINISM DARWINISM – Only the strongest and best survive – Survival of the fittest SOCIAL DARWINISM – Only the strongest and fittest companies survive HOW DOES THIS AFFECT WORKERS?

64 The Workplace Before the war, business owners knew their employees In big factories, a worker was just a number

65 WORKERS Women and Children Textile (clothes and garments) industry Tobacco factories Bottle factories Mines

66 Dangerous Conditions Breathing dust from factories and mines Molten metal burned and killed steel workers NO WORKERS COMPENSATION Social Darwinism says survival of the fittest keep prices down

67 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory March 25, 1911, Fire Exit doors locked to prevent sneaking off the job Firetruck ladders too short 150 dead – mostly women

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71 Workers Organize Attempts to organize Unions often failed Companies hired security guards to attack union organizers Some state law prohibited strikes

72 Knights of Labor 1869 – Philadelphia – Small secret Union 1879 – New leader does not use strikes – uses public rallies Admits women, African Americans, immigrants, unskilled laborers

73 Haymarket Square May 4, 1886 – Bomb explosion at a rally 1 police officer dead Police fire on Union members but kill 7 other police officers, wound 60 cops and unknown number of civilians Knights of Labor lose influence

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75 AFL 1886 – Samuel Gompers organizes the American Federation of Labor Skilled workers only – No African Americans or immigrants WHY SKILLED WORKERS ONLY? SKILLED WORKERS ARE HARD TO REPLACE

76 Collective Bargaining Union negotiates with management Strikes only as a last resort By 1904, 1 million members

77 Depression 1893 – Depression - Production cut - Workers fired - Wages cut Pullman workers had pay cut 25% but still charged the same for housing

78 Pullman Workers go on strike RR’s crippled President Cleveland sends troops to force workers back to work

79 Backlash Most Americans see Unions as radical and violent Only 3% of Americans in Unions

80 Bullet Points p. 6137Read pgs

81 Ch 18 Sec 3 Cities Grow and Change I CAN UNDERSTAND THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE RAPID GROWTH OF CITIES

82 Why it matters The new Industrial Revolution changed the way Americans worked and lived It also changed where they worked and lived

83 Urbanization 1860 – 1 in five Americans lived in cities 1890 – 1 in 3 lived in cities Cities attracted industry Industry attracted people Fastest growing cities near water

84 Growing up and out New Technology 1. Elevated trains 2. Electric street cars 3. Public transportation 4. Steel bridges 5. Skyscrapers

85 Living Patterns Poor families lived in oldest sections Middle class lived farther out, row houses – apartment buildings Upper class on edge of city

86 Problems Fire – 1871 – Great Chicago Fire Tenement life Few windows, heat or plumbing Garbage ½ of babies died before age 1

87 Improvements Streetlights Police and Fire Departments Public Health Departments Hospital – clinics Salvation Army

88 Settlement Houses Jane Addams – Hull House – Chicago – 1889 Helping urban poor 1. English lessons 2. Nurseries 3. Music 4. Sports 5. Sponsored legislation to outlaw child labor

89 EXCITEMENT Farm Life – The work is never done City Life – Work for the boss then you’re off HOW DOES THIS FEEL??

90 Up every mornin’ just to keep a job I gotta fight my way through the hustling mob Sounds of the city poundin’ in my brain While another day goes down the drain

91 Tradin’ my time for the pay I get Livin’ on money that I ain’t made yet I’ve been goin’ tryin’ to make my way While I live for the end of the day IF THIS IS YOU, WHAT WOULD YOU WANT?

92 Shopping Department stores

93 Leisure Museums – Museum of Natural History

94 Leisure Orchestras Art Galleries Theatre Circuses

95 New York’s Central Park

96 Sports Baseball 1 st Professional baseball team – 1869 – Cincinnati Red Stockings

97 Sports Basketball – 1891 – James Naismith

98 Sports Football 44

99 Ch 18 Sec 5 Education and Culture I can understand the causes and effects of an expanded educational system

100 Assignment 1.Read pages 632 – Do Ch 18 Sec 5 Key Terms and People – pg Do Ch 18 Sec 5 Graphic Organizer 4.Quiz Tuesday

101 Ch 18 Sec 5 Education and Culture Before 1870, < ½ of children went to school 1852 – Mass. 1 st compulsory education law Most Northern states required education Many Southern states did not require education WHY?? An industrialized society needs educated workers

102 High School LOOK AT CHART ON PAGE 633 Most states required 10 th grade education Not until 1950 did over ½ of students graduate

103 Writers Dime novels – Wild West stories Realists – Show life as it is Jack London Stephen Crane

104 Mark Twain Real Name – Samuel Clemens Huckleberry Finn Tom Sawyer

105 Newspapers By 1900 ½ of worlds papers were printed in U.S. Newspapers linked to Urbanization Joseph Pulitzer created first modern newspaper Cut price of New York World – WHY??

106 Newspapers Sensational headlines Crime – scandal Pictures Faked interviews Full color comics


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