6NEW INVENTIONS & DISCOVERIES Bessemer Process – Steel – 1851Oil in Pennsylvania – 1859Sholes’ typewriterTranscontinental RR – 1869Bell’s telephoneEdison’s phonograph – 1877Edison light bulb – 1879Edison power plant – 1882Matzeliger’s shoe making machine – 18831st practical auto – Benz – GermanyEastman’s camera – 18881st U.S. production car – Duryea – 18931st motion picture camera – Louis Lumiere – France1st powered flight – Wright brothers – 1903Assembly line perfected – Henry Ford 1913
23Ch 18 Sec 4 The New Immigrants I can understand how the experience of immigrants was both positive and negative
24Between 1865 and 1915 – 25 million immigrants to U.S. StatisticsBetween 1865 and 1915 – 25 million immigrants to U.S.This is more than the U.S. population in 1850
25ReasonsLANDAmount of European farmland shrinking while populations grewRELIGIOUS FREEDOMJews from RussiaChristians from Turkey
26U.S. companies recruited from overseas ReasonsPOLITICAL UNREST1910 Mexican RevolutionJOBSU.S. companies recruited from overseas
27ReasonsFREEDOMDrew people who wanted democracy and liberty
28Immigrant Divisions Early 1800’s Late 1800’s Most from Northern and Western EuropeMost ProtestantSpoke EnglishKnew some democracyFrom Southern or Eastern EuropeMost Catholic or JewishFew spoke EnglishLittle knowledge of democracy
29A New Life Difficult decision to leave Miserable trip Most took trip in steerage – large compartments that usually held cattle
30Difficult Trip Crowded conditions Little ventilation Sea sick Easy to catch diseases
31Ellis Island Arrivals from Europe through Ellis Island Physical examinationsDisabled or sick sent back
54Ch 18 Sec 2 Big Business & Organized Labor I CAN UNDERSTAND HOW BIG BUSINESS CHANGED THE WORKPLACE AND GAVE RISE TO ORGANIZED LABOR
55Business were no longer small shops producing goods Ch 18 Sec 2Business were no longer small shops producing goodsNow business was factories, employing many and producing goods
56THE MADDOX WIDGET FACTORY How did they do it?Corporations – Businesses owned by many people, investors.EXAMPLETHE MADDOX WIDGET FACTORY
57Banks loaned money to corporations BANKINGBanks loaned money to corporationsCorporations paid it back with interestWhat is interest?
58Growth of Big Business Monopolies Businesses that controlled all of the businessExample – The Maddox Widget business owns the factory, the supplies to make the widgets, the shipping of the widgets and the sale of the widgets.
59Examples Andrew Carnegie Started in RR’sGained control of steel making industryMade more steel than all steel mills in EnglandWHAT DID HE OWN?
60EXAMPLES JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER Age 23, invested in an oil refineryProfits bought other oil companiesCreated many corporations controlled by one board of directorsThis is called a trustStandard Oil Co.
62Trusts and Monopolies The Debate GOODBuilds the economyCreates jobsKeeps prices lowConsumers can afford productsBADThreat to free enterpriseUnfairly eliminates competitionCorrupts politicians
63HOW DOES THIS AFFECT WORKERS? SOCIAL DARWINISMDARWINISM – Only the strongest and best survive – Survival of the fittestSOCIAL DARWINISM – Only the strongest and fittest companies surviveHOW DOES THIS AFFECT WORKERS?
64Before the war, business owners knew their employees The WorkplaceBefore the war, business owners knew their employeesIn big factories, a worker was just a number
65WORKERSWomen and ChildrenTextile (clothes and garments) industryTobacco factoriesBottle factoriesMines
66NO WORKERS COMPENSATION Dangerous ConditionsBreathing dust from factories and minesMolten metal burned and killed steel workersNO WORKERS COMPENSATIONSocial Darwinism says survival of the fittest keep prices down
67Triangle Shirtwaist Factory March 25, 1911, FireExit doors locked to prevent sneaking off the jobFiretruck ladders too short150 dead – mostly women
71Workers OrganizeAttempts to organize Unions often failedCompanies hired security guards to attack union organizersSome state law prohibited strikes
72Knights of Labor 1869 – Philadelphia – Small secret Union 1879 – New leader does not use strikes – uses public ralliesAdmits women, African Americans, immigrants, unskilled laborers
73Haymarket Square May 4, 1886 – Bomb explosion at a rally 1 police officer deadPolice fire on Union members but kill 7 other police officers, wound 60 cops and unknown number of civiliansKnights of Labor lose influence
75WHY SKILLED WORKERS ONLY? AFL1886 – Samuel Gompers organizes the American Federation of LaborSkilled workers only – No African Americans or immigrantsWHY SKILLED WORKERS ONLY?SKILLED WORKERS ARE HARD TO REPLACE
76Collective Bargaining Union negotiates with managementStrikes only as a last resortBy 1904, 1 million members
77Depression 1893 – Depression - Production cut - Workers fired - Wages cutPullman workers had pay cut 25% but still charged the same for housing
78Pullman Workers go on strike RR’s crippled President Cleveland sends troops to force workers back to work
79Most Americans see Unions as radical and violent BacklashMost Americans see Unions as radical and violentOnly 3% of Americans in Unions
81Ch 18 Sec 3 Cities Grow and Change I CAN UNDERSTAND THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE RAPID GROWTH OF CITIES
82Why it mattersThe new Industrial Revolution changed the way Americans worked and livedIt also changed where they worked and lived
83Urbanization 1860 – 1 in five Americans lived in cities 1890 – 1 in 3 lived in citiesCities attracted industryIndustry attracted peopleFastest growing cities near water
84Growing up and out New Technology 1. Elevated trains 2. Electric street cars3. Public transportation4. Steel bridges5. Skyscrapers
85Living Patterns Poor families lived in oldest sections Middle class lived farther out, row houses – apartment buildingsUpper class on edge of city
86Problems Fire – 1871 – Great Chicago Fire Tenement life Few windows, heat or plumbingGarbage½ of babies died before age 1
87ImprovementsStreetlightsPolice and Fire DepartmentsPublic Health DepartmentsHospital – clinicsSalvation Army
88Settlement Houses Jane Addams – Hull House – Chicago – 1889 Helping urban poor1. English lessons2. Nurseries3. Music4. Sports5. Sponsored legislation to outlaw child labor
89Farm Life – The work is never done EXCITEMENTFarm Life – The work is never doneCity Life – Work for the boss then you’re offHOW DOES THIS FEEL??
90Up every mornin’ just to keep a job I gotta fight my way through the hustling mob Sounds of the city poundin’ in my brain While another day goes down the drain
91IF THIS IS YOU, WHAT WOULD YOU WANT? Tradin’ my time for the pay I get Livin’ on money that I ain’t made yet I’ve been goin’ tryin’ to make my way While I live for the end of the dayIF THIS IS YOU, WHAT WOULD YOU WANT?
101Ch 18 Sec 5 Education and Culture Before 1870, < ½ of children went to school1852 – Mass. 1st compulsory education lawMost Northern states required educationMany Southern states did not require educationWHY??An industrialized society needs educated workers
102High School LOOK AT CHART ON PAGE 633 Most states required 10th grade educationNot until 1950 did over ½ of students graduate
103Writers Dime novels – Wild West stories Realists – Show life as it is Jack LondonStephen Crane
104Mark TwainReal Name – Samuel ClemensHuckleberry FinnTom Sawyer
105Newspapers By 1900 ½ of worlds papers were printed in U.S. Newspapers linked to UrbanizationJoseph Pulitzer created first modern newspaperCut price of New York World – WHY??