Presentation on theme: "Causes of Civil War U.S. CP. Today’s Objectives Know the sectional differences that existed between the North and the South before the Civil War. Understand."— Presentation transcript:
Causes of Civil War U.S. CP
Today’s Objectives Know the sectional differences that existed between the North and the South before the Civil War. Understand the impact of the cotton gin. Know what the underground railroad was. Understand the term “manifest destiny.” Know how the fugitive slave law created sectional tension. Understand how westward expansion caused sectional tension. Know the 2 ways that the U.S. acquired the territory that allowed it to reach the Pacific Ocean.
Sectional Differences As North industrialized and became more modern, the South stayed mostly the same. U.S. became a country with two different societies.
The North –1. More Populous –2. More Manufacturing –3. More cities –4. More Railroads –5. Free Labor (wage labor) “Self-Making”
South Mainly Agriculture Slaves
The Cotton Gin Slavery was in decline as crops began to shift from tobacco to wheat in the upper south. Eli Whitney’s invention (1793) makes cotton a crop that can be grown in the south. It separates seeds from the cotton. After the invention of the cotton gin, U.S. South becomes the leading producer of cotton in the world. Caused an increase in the demand for slaves.
Review How were the North and South different by the 1840s? What was the Cotton Gin and how did it impact slavery?
Abolitionists People who oppose slavery –A. Moral grounds –B. Goes against “Self-Making”—the idea that through hard work, individuals can succeed.
Key Abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison—editor of The Liberator.
Frederick Douglass— An escaped Slave.
Underground Railroad “Conductors” help slaves to safe houses until they escape to free territory. Harriet Tubman is the most famous “conductor.” Underground RR infuriates many southerners.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin Anti-Slavery novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Upset many southerners.
Review Who was the most famous abolitonist? Who was the famous abolitionist that was an ex-slave? What was the underground railroad? Who was the most famous conductor of the underground railroad?
Fugitive Slave Law Law that forced Northerners to help in catching runaway slaves. Fines for helping runaways. Bonus for returning them. Angers many Northerners.
Sectional Tension over Slavery Southerners do not like: –A. Underground RR –B. Abolitionists –C. “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” Northerners do not like: –Fugitive Slave Law –Slavery’s negative impact on white self- making
Manifest Destiny Idea that the country is destined to expand to the Pacific. –A. Virtue –B. Mission –C. Destiny Allows overpopulation to have an outlet to the west. Term coined by John L. O`Sullivan
Westward Expansion Country acquires more territory: –A. Louisiana Purchase –B. War with Mexico
The problem of Westward Expansion As the country moves west and makes new states, the issue becomes whether the new states should be “free” or “slave.” Why would people care whether states could have slaves or not?
The answer The South fears that if it doesn’t have the same amount of votes in Congress (The Senate), Northerners will outlaw slavery. So Southerners feel that there always needs to be the same amount of “slave” and “free” states. Many Northerners, however, oppose the expansion of slavery. WHY?
Warm Up What were some of the differences between the North and the South before the Civil War? What was the Cotton gin? Who invented it? And what was its impact? What was the Underground railroad? What was the fugitive slave law? What was Manifest Destiny? What were the two ways that America acquired territory west of the Mississippi? How did westward expansion cause tension between the North and the South?
Louisiana Purchase When Jefferson is President. US wants to have access to port city of New Orleans so farmers can get crops down the Mississippi River to market. When US asks to buy city of New Orleans from France, Napoleon offers all of Louisiana territory. US buys for $15 million Doubles the size of the US
The Missouri Compromise Missouri applies for statehood in At the time there are 11-Free Sates & 11- Slave states. Many slaves already in Missouri.
The Compromise The work of Henry Clay—Speaker of the House from Kentucky Maine would enter the Union as a free sate and Missouri a Slave state. In the future, slavery would not be allowed in remaining territory above Missouri’s southern border of
Indian Removal Another problems with westward expansion was what to do about native Americans. Whites want native lands so they can farm. When Andrew Jackson is president, he tells natives they must give up their land and move west of the Mississippi River.
The Trail of Tears
Texas Americans invited by Mexican govt. to settle in Texas in 1820s. They are led by Stephen F. Austin. Soon there were more Americans than Mexicans. American settlers declared independence in Mexican forces ruthlessly try to subdue the rebellion (The Alamo).
Battle of San Jacinto— Sam Houston captures Santa Anna and Texans get independence. US won’t take in Texas because it would create controversy (slavery). Lone Star Republic until 1844 when US finally takes Texas as a state.
War with Mexico Mexico breaks diplomatic ties with US over Texas annexation. US tries to buy New Mexico and California, but Mexico rejects. Mexico claims that border of Texas is Nueces River. America claims it is the Rio Grande. US President Polk sends forces commanded by Zachary Taylor to “defend” the border. US claims it was attacked and Congress declares war in 1846.
War with Mexico 1846 – 1848 (US wins) Winfield Scott captures Mexico City. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends war US gets California, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming. Also border of Texas is recognized as Rio Grande. US pays Mexico $15 million.
California When Mexican War broke out, John C. Fremont led a rebellion of Americans living in CA and declared independence (The Bear Flag Republic).
The Gold Rush 1848—John Marshall— working at Sutter’s Mill — finds gold. Leads to Gold Rush (49ers). Most are men—leads to volatile society. Also many Chinese.
Problem with the U.S. winning the war with Mexico Now new sates will want to enter the union. Should they be free or slave? Missouri compromise won’t work. What would you do?
Problems of California Statehood Calif. Applied for statehood in 1849 as a free sate. The balance between free and slave states was 15 each. Southerners were opposed and feared other potential new sates—New Mexico, Oregon, Utah—would also enter as free states too.
Compromise of 1850 In 1850 there are 15 free states and 15 slave states. California wants to enter as free state. 1. Cal. Enters union as free state. 2. Utah & New Mexico territories = Popular Sovereignty (the people in the state decide if they want slavery or not). 3. Outlawed slave trade in Washington D.C. 4. Called for a stronger fugitive slave law.
Kansas - Nebraska Kansas wants to enter the union. Supposed to be free of slavery because of Missouri Compromise Kansas – Nebraska Act. Territory divided into two—Kansas and Nebraska. Territories could decide for themselves = popular sovereignty.
“Bleeding Kansas” 1855—Elections held in Kansas. Pro-slavery people from neighboring Missouri come into the state and vote. Pro-slavery majority vote to legalize slavery. Anti-slavery people form their own govt. and outlaw slavery (Lawrence). There were then two governments in the state—One saying the state is a slave sate, the other saying it’s a free state. Pro-slavery forces go and “sack” Lawrence.
Bleeding Kansas (cont.) Soon fighting between the two sides began to see who will rule the state. Is a prelude to the Civil War.
Birth of Republican Party Kansas –Nebraska Act led Northern Whigs and many Northern Democrats-- who were upset at the repeal of the Missouri Compromise—to form a new party. 1854—the Republican Party
Republican Party’s Ideology “Free Soil, Free Labor” They are against the expansion of slavery into the territory west of the Miss.
Read Handout What were the two key rulings handed down by the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott Case? In other words, What two things about slavery were decided by this case?
Dred Scott Case 1857—Dred Scott v. Sandford Chief Justice Roger Taney ruled: –A. Scott could not sue because slaves are not citizens, but rather, property. –B. The Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional & thus the fed. Govt. could not say where slavery could or could not be. Greatly increased sectional tension because it made it seem as if fed. Government could not stop slavery from expanding.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858 Senate race in Illinois. Series of debates between the candidates—Republican Abe Lincoln and Democrat Stephen Douglas. Main issue they debate is what to do about the issue of slavery in the western territories. Douglas win the election, but Lincoln becomes famous throughout the country.
John Brown Radical Abolitionist. Leads a raid on Harper’s Ferry (1859). Wanted to give weapons to slaves so they could rebel. Is captured and hung. Anti-slave people call him a martyr. South considers him to be crazy.
The Election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate for President, is against the extension of slavery into the western territories. Does not think blacks are equal to whites but thinks slavery is bad for white self-making. Some in the South say that they will secede (leave the Union) If he is elected President.
Election of 1860
Lincoln wins The South secedes. They form The Confederate Sates of America. Some southern “Border” states stay in the union.