Presentation on theme: "The 1920s as an Age of Reaction?"— Presentation transcript:
1The 1920s as an Age of Reaction? Guess where this picture was taken?
2The 1920s as an Age of Reaction? Women of the Ku Klux Klan Marching in Front of theBroome County Court House
3Historical Context: The Twenties What comes to mind when you think about the 1920s?The “New Woman” (Flappers)New Styles & BehaviorsSpeakeasies & BootleggingRapid Economic ExpansionThe Lost GenerationThe Harlem RenaissancePolitical CorruptionThe “Roaring Twenties”
4Reactions to Rapid Social Change NativismPolitical IntoleranceTemperance (Prohibition)Christian FundamentalismRacial TensionsA Temperance PosterThe Twenties Were Also an “Age of Reaction”
5Immigration in the 1920s What is the main idea of the cartoon? What do we call anti-immigrant feelings?
6How did the Quota Acts affect American immigration? Immigration in the 1920sHow did the Quota Acts affect American immigration?
7Nativism Nativism: Anti-immigrant feeling Quota Acts (National Origins Act)… set strict limits on immigration, especially from Eastern & Southern EuropeBased on scientific racismReflected growing nativist & anti-radical sentiment by groups like the KKK
8The Second Ku Klux KlanFounded at Stone Mountain, GA 1915 by former minister William SimmonsRelease of film “Birth of a Nation” in 1915 popularized & glamorized the KKKTargeted not just African-Americans but also Jews, Catholics and immigrants in generalBy mid-1920s national membership reportedly reached 4.5 million
9The Klan Arrives Broome County This pamphlet was found on people’s doorsteps in Binghamton on March 17, 1923.Question: Who do you think the local Ku Klux Klan was targeting?Answer: The Irish and Other Immigrants (especially Catholics and Jews)
10The Klan Arrives Broome County Klan activity in Broome County first noted on St. Patrick’s Day 1923 when KKK pamphlets were left on doorsteps20,000 workers (many of whom were immigrants) in the Triple Cities during the 1920s, including 12 E-J factoriesLocal KKK was partly a reaction to this immigration
11Binghamton as State Klan Headquarters 1923 Binghamton chosen as NYS headquarters for the KKKState-wide conventions held, including cross-burnings and rallies in Endicott & Whitney PointIn 1924 George F. Johnson received anonymous letter from a Klan member threatening a boycott of EJ Shoes unless he fired foreign workersQuestion: What is currently located at this site?Answer: The Martin Luther King Jr. PromenadeNew York State Klan Headquarters Henry & Wall Streets, Binghamton
14What criteria did someone have to meet in order to join the KKK? What does this suggest about how the KKK understood themselves?
15The Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) -Groups like the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) fought to outlaw alcohol, prostitution, and other vices-In Broome County, the WCTU appeared to ally with the local KKK.Why would they do that?
16“Sister” Aimee McPherson Religious Revival1920s Marked a Rise in Religious FervorQuestion: What is Christian Fundamentalism?Answer: A strict, literal interpretation of the Bible.“Sister” Aimee, Billy Sunday, and Other Radio Evangelists Reached Mass AudiencesWhat was the topic of Billy Sunday’s sermon in this clip?“Sister” Aimee McPherson
17The Scopes “Monkey” Trial -High School teacher John Scopes is tried for teaching evolution in Tennessee-Became a debate on evolution & religious fundamentalism-First major trial to reach a mass audience as it was broadcast live on the radioClarence Darrow & William Jennings Bryan
18Putting It All Together… How did Christian Fundamentalists embrace aspects of modernism even as they appeared to struggle against it?
19Race RiotsThe period between 1919 and 1921 was marked by violent race riots in northern cities.Why might this have happened?Chicago, 1919
20The Red ScareA. Mitchell Palmer, U.S. Attorney General-Bombs Sent to Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer & Other Government Officials-Palmer Raids: 10,000 Suspected Communists & Anarchists Arrested-249 Deported to Soviet Union-Labor Unions like IWW targeted“Put Them Out and Keep Them Out,” The Philadelphia Inquirer (1919)
21Sacco & Vanzetti Trial -Italian Immigrants & Anarchists -Convicted of Murder w/out Much Evidence-Reflects both Nativism & Anti-Radicalism-Controversial ExecutionSacco & Vanzetti
22Putting It All Together… Why would there have been so much fear of radicalism after 1917? Hint: What else was happening in other parts of the world at this time?
23What label should we use to characterize the 1920s? Closing ReflectionWhat label should we use to characterize the 1920s?
24? The Twenties The Jazz Age The Age of Business The The Roaring TwentiesTheConservativeDecadeTheAge of Reaction