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"test-tube babies" in vitro fertilization The technique for conception of a human embryo outside the human body. Natasha Vita-More.World Futures.Module.

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Presentation on theme: ""test-tube babies" in vitro fertilization The technique for conception of a human embryo outside the human body. Natasha Vita-More.World Futures.Module."— Presentation transcript:

1 "test-tube babies" in vitro fertilization The technique for conception of a human embryo outside the human body. Natasha Vita-More.World Futures.Module 1.Framing

2 In vitro fertilization AdvancingResolving No. of Events Framing Natasha Vita-More.World Futures.Module 1.Framing 2

3 In vitro fertilization 1976 – Steptoe, Edwards and Bavister collaborate in England 1978 – First “test tube baby” born 1988 – 20 fertility specialists gathered to discuss topics of mutual interest at the Four Seasons Hotel in Boston, Massachusetts 1985 – British Parliament bill to outlaw IVF established but law is not passed 1990 – the Human Fertilization and Embryology Act comes into being – Progress Educational Trust developed 1993 – American Congress enacted the NIH Revitalization Act 1785 –First attempt of artificial insemination (“AI”) by Scottish surgeon is successful 1960s – First modern attempts at AI succeeds 1960s – British researchers tinkering with IVF 1973 – hospital administrator in NY city attempts IVF procedure Framing AdvancingResolving Natasha Vita-More.World Futures.Module 1.Framing 3

4 Framing: … in 1785 there was a major breakthrough, when John Hunter, a Scottish surgeon, made his first attempts at human artificial insemination. As a result of his experiments a child was born that same year.” Framing: “As the 1960s dawned doctors and scientists all over the world were learning more and more about different parts of the process of reproduction, and all of this knowledge and understanding was needed before IVF could be developed.” Framing: First attempts at Artificial Insemination (AI) occurred in the 1960s in SAC in Peru “… I.V.F., began with the tinkering of a few researchers during the l960's, and how it became widely available.” — (Howard Markel New York Times) Framing: 1973, “A hospital administrator in New York City [name unknown] learned of a rogue experiment in progress at his institution and ordered the destruction of a test tube containing a frothy mixture of human eggs and sperm.” (Robin Marantz Henig, Pandora’s Baby) Advancement of the Issue: The successful birth was the result of a collaboration between Oldham gynecologist Patrick Steptoe and two Cambridge doctors, Robert Edwards and Barry Bavister. They developed a technique by which an egg taken from a woman's ovary could be fertilized in a test-tube, and then returned to a womb to grow. Advancement of Issue: The time, 11:57 p.m., July 25, 1978, the miracle happened. Louise Brown, the first test-tube baby, was born at a small local hospital in Oldham in the industrial north of England. Advancement of Issue: In 1985, seven years after the birth of Louise Brown, the first 'test tube baby', the first attempt to outlaw embryo research in the United Kingdom was launched. The late Conservative member of parliament, Enoch Powell, tabled a private members bill which sought to make research using human embryos illegal. The response to Powell's bill in parliament was positive: only hard lobbying and the skillful use of parliamentary tactics meant that the bill eventually ran out of parliamentary time. Page 3 Notes 3a Natasha Vita-More.World Futures.Module 1.Framing

5 Advancement of the Issue: 1988, 20 Fertility Specialists gather to discuss IVF Melbourne initiated one of the world’s first successful In-vitro fertilisation (IVF) programs, and it has become well-established within the Australian health care system in overcoming the problem of infertility. It provides a means, where conception becomes a possibility when it would not be otherwise. The many issues surrounding IVF have recently been resurrected in the media with a Federal court ruling on the 28th of July 2000, which found that Victoria’s artificial reproduction laws breached the Commonwealth Sex Discrimination Act (1984). These State laws excluded single women and lesbians from access to IVF services in Victoria. In this particular case, the Victorian State legislation would not permit a single, heterosexual woman, Lisa Meldrum, to undergo an IVF procedure in Victoria. By the federal Court’s highlighting of this legislative anomaly, it has allowed single women, regardless of sexual preference, access to donor sperm screened for HIV, and if required, IVF procedures in the state of Victoria. This decision has also reignited considerable recent public interest about the moral and social aspects of the IVF program, as well as raising questions about particular attitudes, exposed and questioned prejudices, and brought the future formation of Australian society into the forefront of public debate. In this essay I will use six newspaper articles to help explore some of these important issues facing society today. Resolving: After a concerted campaign of public education and parliamentary lobbying, members of PROGRESS were relieved when, in 1990, the Human Fertilization and Embryology Act finally came into being. The act, one of the earliest pieces of legislation governing assisted reproduction, provides a framework within which human embryo research and assisted conception services are permitted to continue. There was an unmet need for public education in the field of human reproduction and genetics. And so Progress Educational Trust was established in May As a charity, the Trust is best placed to carry on the educational work of PROGRESS and to extent its activities into schools, universities and the media. Page 3 Notes 3b Natasha Vita-More.World Futures.Module 1.Framing

6 Indicators in Framing Leading ideas: Italian priest and scientist, Lazzaro Spallanzani ( ) developed the techniques of artificial insemination on dogs. The artificial insemination of the dog arose from his application of his discovery The first attempts at human insemination were made by John Hunter ( ), a Scottish surgeon, resulting in the birth of a child in the same year. 1960s. “As the 1960s dawned doctors and scientists all over the world were learning more and more about different parts of the process of reproduction, and all of this knowledge and understanding was needed before IVF could be developed.” s. First attempts at Artificial Insemination (AI) occurred in the 1960s in SAC in Peru, “… I.V.F., began with the tinkering of a few researchers during the l960's, and how it became widely available.” — (Howard Markel New York Times) Natasha Vita-More.World Futures.Module 1.Framing 4

7 Indicators in Framing Leading Events: “A hospital administrator in New York City [name unknown] learned of a rogue experiment in progress at this progress at his institution and ordered the destruction of a test tube containing a frothy mixture of human eggs and sperm.” (Robin Marantz Henig, Pandora’s Baby) Steptoe, Edwards and Bavister collaborate. The successful birth was the result of a collaboration between Oldham gynecologist Patrick Steptoe and two Cambridge doctors, Robert Edwards and Barry Bavister. They developed a technique by which an egg taken from a woman's ovary could be fertilized in a test-tube, and then returned to a womb to grow First test tube baby. 11:57 p.m., July 25, 1978, the miracle happened. Louise Brown, the first test-tube baby, was born at a small local hospital in Oldham in the industrial north of England – British Parliament bill to outlaw IVF. The bill did not pass Fertility Specialists gathered to discuss topics of mutual interest at the Four Seasons Hotel in Boston, Massachusetts. Natasha Vita-More.World Futures.Module 1.Framing 5

8 Indicators in Framing Leading Authorities/Advocates: Doctors Steptoe, Edwards and Bavister collaborate Oldham Hospital provides location for IVF surgery Arvonne Fraser, a local force for global change, articulated a vision for women around the world in one of MWP’s first issues. Wrote for unnamed women magazines Twenty fertility specialists gathered to discuss topics of mutual interest at the Four Seasons Hotel in Boston, Massachusetts Natasha Vita-More.World Futures.Module 1.Framing 6

9 Indicators in Framing Leading Literature: Brave New World. Aldous Huxley. Reproduction has been removed from the womb and placed in a locale where workers tinker with the embryos to produce human beings, ranging from Alpha Pluses and dwarfed semi-moron Epsilons. 1970s. Village Voice. Articles mentioned, however, specific articles could not be located. 1980s. Ms Magazine. Articles mentioned, however, specific articles could not be located A Lesser Life: The Myth of Women's Liberation in America: Sylvia Ann Hewlett WOMEN AND NEW REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: Medical, Psychosocial, Legal, and Ethical Dilemmas, Edited by Judith Rodin Yale University, Aila Collins Karolinska Institute, LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES, PUBLISHERS 1991 Hillsdale, New Jersey Hove and London. Natasha Vita-More.World Futures.Module 1.Framing 7

10 Indicators in Framing Leading Organizations: 1970s. NOW. The Sex Discrimination Act was the result of fierce lobbying by an activist women's movement in the 1970s and 1980s The National Infertility Association. A non-profit national infertility association founded. Mission is to provide timely, compassionate support and information for the millions of individuals who are experiencing infertility issues. The International Council on Infertility Information Dissemination (INCIID) is a nonprofit organization that helps individuals and couples explore their family-building options Society of Reproductive Surgeons was founded to serve as a forum for members of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine with special interest and competency in reproductive surgery Women’s Rights Action Watch at the world conference American Fertility Association (AFA) was founded. Natasha Vita-More.World Futures.Module 1.Framing 8

11 Indicators in Framing Leading Political Jurisdictions: Britain - The Human Fertilization and Embryology Act came into being Britain - Progress Educational Trust American Congress enacted the NIH Revitalization Act, a provision of which rescinded the requirement for approval of research protocols by the non-existent Ethics Advisory Board. This opened the way in principle to the possibility of NIH funding of human embryo research using IVF embryos. The following year, the NIH convened a Human Embryo Research Panel to consider the issues surrounding such research and propose guidelines for potential funding applications. The panel recommended that most sorts of human embryo research should at least be considered for federal funding, including the creation of human embryos through IVF with the explicit intention of using them only for research. Natasha Vita-More.World Futures.Module 1.Framing 9

12 Indicators in Framing “Louise Brown entered the world in As the first baby born via in-vitro fertilization (IVF), she opened a whole new arena of hope to infertile couples, in addition to aggravating a hotbed of moral and ethical debate.” CNN, Natasha Vita-More.World Futures.Module 1.Framing 10


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