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Reproductive Technologies James G. Anderson, Ph.D. Purdue University.

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Presentation on theme: "Reproductive Technologies James G. Anderson, Ph.D. Purdue University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reproductive Technologies James G. Anderson, Ph.D. Purdue University

2 Definition Assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures include fertility treatment in which both eggs and sperm are handled in the laboratory, (i.e., in vitro fertilization and related procedures)

3 Glossary Artificial Insemination (AI) - Introduction of sperm into the uterus through ways other than sexual intercourse In vitro Fertilization (IVF) - Fertilization of the egg outside of the body in a laboratory dish Surrogate Mother - A woman who conceives and/or bears a baby for another

4 Glossary Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) - Gamates (egg or sperm) are injected directly into a womans fallopian tubes Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT) - Zygotes (fertilized egg) resulting from IVF are introduced directly into the fallopian tubes

5 Glossary Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) – Introducing sperm directly into the uterus Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) - A single sperm is injected directly into the center of an egg Human Cloning - A cell from a person is injected into a donors egg whose nucleus and DNA have been removed

6 The Baby Making Industry million infertile couples 421+ fertility clinics 107,587 ART cycles 29, 344 live birth deliveries in ,687 live babies 1 % U.S. infants born in 2001 used assisted reproduced technologies

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11 ART Procedures Patients eggs Fresh75% Thawed13.7% Donor Eggs Fresh8.0% Thawed3.2%

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13 Outcomes of ART 2001 No. of ART procedures107,587 No. of transfer procedures 89,239 No. of pregnancies35,726 No. of live birth deliveries 29,344 No. of infants born40,687 Ratio of ART procedures per population (million) 371.1

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24 Regulation 1979 Government ban on federally funded embryo research 1992 Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act 1995 Law enacted that requires clinics to maintain standardized records of all procedures Seven states have mandated insurance coverage Many states regulate surrogate contracts

25 Proposed Regulations Mandate insurance coverage Restrict the use of reproductive technologies to married couples Restrict the use of reproductive technologies to infertile couples Require couples to sign a form that declares them the legal parents upon birth

26 Proposed Regulations Legislate procedures for disposal of discarded embryos Sperm banks would be required to keep records linking donors and recipients, and to screen donors for infectious diseases Prohibit egg donations to women over 50

27 Social Issues Medicalization Parentage Regulation of Clinics Insurance coverage Disposal of frozen embryos Eugenics Cloning Unregulated industry

28 Issues Clinics Disclosure Donor/patient selection Informed Consent Record Keeping Legal rights/obligations of participants

29 Issues Eugenics Multiple births Selective reduction of embryos Disposition of frozen unused embryos Childs right to know about genetic parents


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