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Some priorities for Water Management in Sub- Saharan Africa View points from FARA Alain L. ANGE Technical Adviser to FARA.

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Presentation on theme: "Some priorities for Water Management in Sub- Saharan Africa View points from FARA Alain L. ANGE Technical Adviser to FARA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Some priorities for Water Management in Sub- Saharan Africa View points from FARA Alain L. ANGE Technical Adviser to FARA

2 What happened so far - what challenges  Food security is a burning issue  Food production could not face demand for food  Huge expected population and food demand growth  Farmers did better while farm size stagnated  Very low pace of intensification  Poor development of irrigated areas  Poor water productivity in agriculture  Climate change will exacerbate risks in farming

3 Food security risk index – 2011 (FAO) Africa is the largest food insecure area and has the largest population of hungry people. Food security = highest ranking component in development agenda A sensitivity issue

4 Food production could not match demand for food SSA Millions Mouths to feedAgricultural populationConsumer/ agric people Growth SSA – source FAO1980 – M t1980 – kg/cap.2008 – M t2008 – kg/cap. Cereal production Net Cereal imports Food imports Food exports Exports industrial crops Huge changes happened in production to consumption systems in last 30 years. The cropped area doubled, production per capita dropped, imports soared The deficit of support to agriculture created a food deficit

5 Population and Food demand growth An Exposure For the next 30 years SSA - millionsMouth to feedAgricultural population Consumer/agric. people Growth x 1.79 x 1.38 x 1.29 Food availability per capita should increase by 30% while food import per capita should decrease; The average production by every agricultural people should increase by 90% for maintaining food imports at present level; Degraded land should be restored and land degradation controlled. A potential adaptive capacity

6 Farmers did better while farm size stagnated Kg produced/ Agricultural people Change % Cereals Beans + Peas Oil Seeds Tubers + Bananas Fruits + Vegetables Perennial food crops Non food crops Total average mass Ha cropped/ 10 agricultural people Small size of farm holdings is a factor of sensitiveness

7 Very low pace for intensification in SSA In spite of considerable development efforts, intensification of farming is coming at very low pace in SSA: Crop productivity increased by less than 15 % in last 20 years Livestock productivity did not changed Only 15% of farmers are using improved crop varieties Fertilizer consumption increased less than the cropped area: 6kg nutrients/ha Acreage of fully irrigated areas progressed less than total cropped areas Mechanization/ motorization progressed less than number of rural people Venues for supporting accelerated intensification of farming o Improved natural resource management /access at community level o Settling rural youth into enlarged / mechanized farming units o Improving access to water for agriculture o Developing effective production chains well connected to markets o Develop affordable agricultural credit and insurance systems o Organize farmers for resource management, mechanization, marketing

8 Poor development of irrigated areas - FAO Sub- region - ha Potential Western 7,451, , ,460 1,061,190 1,202,8201,399,670# Eastern 6,922,900 2,101,300 2,435,700 2,505,600 2,771,7002,637,670# Central10,006,000 59,300 68,610 82, , ,000# Southern11,538,500 2,625,400 2,760,520 3,120,700 3,330,4003,570,000# SSA35,918,400 5,449,850 6,044,290 6,770,080 7,411,7107,677,340# In 20 years fully irrigated areas + 41% - cropped area + 47% - Population + 67% Cultivated humid lowlands ► +11% in 20 years but swallowed by irrigated schemes # = estimated projection Sub- region - ha Western 4,888,000 4,921,000 5, ,286,100 5,360,800# Eastern 222, , , , ,000# Central 78,000 97, , , ,000# Southern 183, , , ,000# SSA 5,372,300 5,538,800 5,581,200 5,822,900 5,942,800#

9 Poor Water Productivity in agriculture in SSA

10 Climate Change will exacerbate risks in farming Climate change in Sub Saharan Africa will affect water balances: -Substantially increase temperature and evaporation of water; -Generate heat waves that may wilt crops; -Increase rainfall variability - more showers and drought spells; -Destabilize run-off regimes – more floods and low waters; -Increase the energy of gales, hurricanes and typhoons; -Generate high tides in mangrove areas and related rice fields. Climate change will also generate: Geographical shifts of natural vegetation and animal species; Changes in distribution of pests and diseases in agriculture; Changes in distribution and intensity of human diseases; Increased risks for wild fires.

11 Sensitivity and potentials for solutions Poverty is the overwhelming constraint Lack of institutional development is limiting response Low public commitment for agriculture is hampering Land development potentials are huge Irrigation potentials are significant Green and blue water available – blue water is short Farming systems and livelihoods are diversified Increasing energy and food prices, price volatility generate potentials and new limiting conditions as well

12 World distribution of poor people Source FAO With 24% of poor people, Sub Saharan Africa is the most affected continent by poverty. In relation to population growth, poor people could be 350 millions by 2030 if MDG are only partially reached. Poverty = The most important component of sensitivity Poverty reduction is key to development and a product from development

13 Lack of institutional development and policy commitment Deficit of institutional development No significant development of farmers’ unions in most countries; Collapse of most cooperative movements Very limited development of out-growers schemes and agreements in production chains supporting intensification Deficit of policy commitment  Dar Es Salaam Declaration in March 2003 = 10% of budget for agriculture  In 2013, 7 countries out of 53 have increased agricultural budgets  Within CAADP, in 7 years, 11 countries have developed Investment Plans  No significant change in budget for irrigation in most Investment Plans  Regulations on water access, water pricing and water quality not available Very good progress on the joint management of shared water basins

14 Land development potentials Latin America – Sub Saharan – East – South – Near East – Industrialized – Transition and Caribbean Africa Asia Asia North Africa Countries Economies Million ha Suitable for rain-fed crops Arable land use Sub – Saharan Africa has huge arable land available – 800 million ha Extending cropped area for larger farms with adequate mechanization ADAPTIVECAPACITYADAPTIVECAPACITY

15 Irrigation Potentials Huge expansion potential for irrigation But potential is 1/3 of potential in South Asia for 3 fold more landmass. ADAPTIVECAPACITYADAPTIVECAPACITY  Plans for irrigation development at national and watershed level;  Budget for irrigation infrastructure agreed upon;  Water-users associations promoted;  Water pricing regulated.

16 Diversity of Green and Blue water availability in SSA

17 Limitations for Blue Water availability in SSA

18 Farming/ livelihood systems in Africa Extremely diverse and tightly natural resource depending farming systems/ livelihoods generate adequate local responses. The diversity of farming conditions and agro-biodiversity are composing a capital for adaptation to increasing markets and to climate change

19 Increasing energy and food prices Energy price tripled in 10 years – Food prices increased by 80% Both trends compose a major exposure to African economies Energy cost will hit cost of irrigation Food prices are only partially reflected in producers’ price

20 Priorities for improved water management Improve the productivity of green water ensuring 90% of food production so far; Promote land use planning and water harvesting where possible Develop irrigated rice production while sharply reducing water consumption Rationalize traditional water use for irrigated vegetables and fruits and improve safety of waste water recycling Promote wherever economically viable complementary irrigation, in particular for maize production Organize the recharge of ground water bodies Address water pricing issues to improve efficient water use Address by regulations and enforcement water pollution from agricultural/ non agricultural activities

21 Recent land use developments 1 – 1000 ha CountryKENYAETHIOPIABURUNDICAMEROON Year Cereals 1, , , , ,717.6 % irrigated Legumes+oil seeds , , , % irrigated Roots + tubers + bananas , % irrigated + humid land Industrial crops ,341.3 % irrigated Vegetables + fruits % irrigated + humid land TOTAL crops 3, , , , , , ,776.3 Total irrigated + humid land IRRIGATED - FAO

22 Recent land use developments 2 – 1000 ha CountryBeninBurkina FasoGhanaMali Year Cereals , , , , % irrigated Legumes+oil seeds % irrigated Roots + tubers + bananas , % irrigated + humid land Industrial crops , % irrigated Vegetables + fruits % irrigated + humid land Total crops 1, , , , , , , ,128.5 Total Irrigated + humid land Irrigated -FAO

23 Recent land use developments 3 – 1000 ha CountryNigeriaCameroonMadagascarSouth Africa Year Cereals15, , , , , , ,548.0 % irrigated Legumes+oil seeds 3, , % irrigated Roots + tubers + bananas 3, , % irrigated + humid land Industrial crops 4, , , % irrigated Vegetables + fruits , % irrigated + humid land Total crops28, , , , , , , ,237.9 Total Irrigated + humid land 2, , , , , ,632.5 Irrigated -FAO , , , ,670.0

24 Conclusions Investments for irrigation have been high in few countries only; In most cases, the expansion of the cropped area has been at least as high as the expansion of irrigated areas; A large proportion of irrigation takes place in humid lowlands, taping surface and shallow ground waters through archaic systems; Irrigation is developed for rice production in modern irrigation schemes and in humid lowlands and for vegetable production in humid lowlands; Only in South Africa irrigation is largely developed for maize, soybeans and eventually canola production and for intensive fruit production. Irrigation has more impact on nutrition quality than on food security in most countries, while in the Sahel zone, it significantly contributes to the supply of grains. Increasing public and private investments for irrigation should be combined with improved water efficiency and water productivity


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