Presentation on theme: "Some priorities for Water Management in Sub- Saharan Africa"— Presentation transcript:
1Some priorities for Water Management in Sub- Saharan Africa View points from FARAAlain L. ANGETechnical Adviser to FARA
2What happened so far - what challenges Food security is a burning issueFood production could not face demand for foodHuge expected population and food demand growthFarmers did better while farm size stagnatedVery low pace of intensificationPoor development of irrigated areasPoor water productivity in agricultureClimate change will exacerbate risks in farming
3Food security risk index – 2011 (FAO) A sensitivity issueAfrica is the largest food insecure area and has the largest population of hungry people.Food security = highest ranking component in development agenda
4Food production could not match demand for food Huge changes happened in production to consumption systems in last 30 years.SSA MillionsMouths to feedAgricultural populationConsumer/ agric people19803692581.4320108203822.15Growth2.221.481.50The cropped area doubled, production per capita dropped, imports soaredSSA – source FAO1980 – M t1980 – kg/cap.2008 – M t2008 – kg/cap.Cereal production51138.1109139.7Net Cereal imports3.910.420.424.9Food imports1027.33342.2Food exports8.723.611.214.4Exports industrial crops3.810.25.77.3The deficit of support to agriculture created a food deficit
5Population and Food demand growth An ExposureFor the next 30 yearsSSA - millionsMouth to feedAgricultural populationConsumer/agric. people20108203822.1520401.4675272.78GrowthxxxFood availability per capita should increase by 30% while food import per capita should decrease;The average production by every agricultural people should increase by 90% for maintaining food imports at present level;Degraded land should be restored and land degradation controlled.A potential adaptive capacity
6Farmers did better while farm size stagnated Kg produced/Agricultural people19852008Change %Cereals210.9256.7+ 22Beans + Peas15.623.9+ 53Oil Seeds14.324.7+ 73Tubers + Bananas355.9540.6+ 52Fruits + Vegetables78.8103.0+ 31Perennial food crops239.8207.3- 14Non food crops7.68.6+ 13Total average mass922.9+ 26Ha cropped/ 10 agricultural people3.4903.806+ 9Small size of farm holdings is a factor of sensitiveness
7Very low pace for intensification in SSA In spite of considerable development efforts, intensification of farming is coming at very low pace in SSA:Crop productivity increased by less than 15 % in last 20 yearsLivestock productivity did not changedOnly 15% of farmers are using improved crop varietiesFertilizer consumption increased less than the cropped area: 6kg nutrients/haAcreage of fully irrigated areas progressed less than total cropped areasMechanization/ motorization progressed less than number of rural peopleVenues for supporting accelerated intensification of farmingImproved natural resource management /access at community levelSettling rural youth into enlarged / mechanized farming unitsImproving access to water for agricultureDeveloping effective production chains well connected to marketsDevelop affordable agricultural credit and insurance systemsOrganize farmers for resource management, mechanization, marketing
8Poor development of irrigated areas - FAO In 20 years fully irrigated areas + 41% - cropped area + 47% - Population + 67%Sub- region - haPotentialWestern7,451,000663,850779,4601,061,1901,202,8201,399,670#Eastern6,922,9002,101,3002,435,7002,505,6002,771,7002,637,670#Central10,006,00059,30068,61082,590106,790130,000#Southern11,538,5002,625,4002,760,5203,120,7003,330,4003,570,000#SSA35,918,4005,449,8506,044,2906,770,0807,411,7107,677,340#Cultivated humid lowlands ►+11% in 20 years but swallowed by irrigated schemesSub- region - haWestern4,888,0004,921,0005,5,286,1005,360,800#Eastern222,400180,400183,600190,400200,000#Central78,00097,500125,000162,500Southern183,900184,900182,000#SSA5,372,3005,538,8005,581,2005,822,9005,942,800## = estimated projection
10Climate Change will exacerbate risks in farming Climate change in Sub Saharan Africa will affect water balances:Substantially increase temperature and evaporation of water;Generate heat waves that may wilt crops;Increase rainfall variability - more showers and drought spells;Destabilize run-off regimes – more floods and low waters;Increase the energy of gales, hurricanes and typhoons;Generate high tides in mangrove areas and related rice fields.Climate change will also generate:Geographical shifts of natural vegetation and animal species;Changes in distribution of pests and diseases in agriculture;Changes in distribution and intensity of human diseases;Increased risks for wild fires.
11Sensitivity and potentials for solutions Poverty is the overwhelming constraintLack of institutional development is limiting responseLow public commitment for agriculture is hamperingLand development potentials are hugeIrrigation potentials are significantGreen and blue water available – blue water is shortFarming systems and livelihoods are diversifiedIncreasing energy and food prices, price volatility generate potentials and new limiting conditions as well
12World distribution of poor people - 2010 Poverty = The most important component of sensitivitySource FAOPoverty reduction is key to development and a product from developmentWith 24% of poor people, Sub Saharan Africa is the most affected continent by poverty. In relation to population growth, poor people could be 350 millions by 2030 if MDG are only partially reached.
13Lack of institutional development and policy commitment Deficit of institutional developmentNo significant development of farmers’ unions in most countries;Collapse of most cooperative movementsVery limited development of out-growers schemes and agreements in production chains supporting intensificationDeficit of policy commitmentDar Es Salaam Declaration in March 2003 = 10% of budget for agricultureIn 2013, 7 countries out of 53 have increased agricultural budgetsWithin CAADP, in 7 years, 11 countries have developed Investment PlansNo significant change in budget for irrigation in most Investment PlansRegulations on water access, water pricing and water quality not availableVery good progress on the joint management of shared water basins
14Land development potentials CYSub – Saharan Africa has huge arable land available – 800 million haMillion ha12001000800600400200Suitable for rain-fed cropsArable land useLatin America – Sub Saharan – East – South – Near East – Industrialized – Transition and Caribbean Africa Asia Asia North Africa Countries EconomiesExtending cropped area for larger farms with adequate mechanization
15Irrigation Potentials DPTIVECYHuge expansion potential for irrigationBut potential is 1/3 of potential in South Asia for 3 fold more landmass.Plans for irrigation development at national and watershed level;Budget for irrigation infrastructure agreed upon;Water-users associations promoted;Water pricing regulated.
16Diversity of Green and Blue water availability in SSA
18Farming/ livelihood systems in Africa The diversity of farming conditions and agro-biodiversity are composing a capital for adaptation to increasing markets and to climate changeExtremely diverse and tightly natural resource dependingfarming systems/ livelihoods generate adequate local responses.
19Increasing energy and food prices Energy price tripled in 10 years – Food prices increased by 80%Both trends compose a major exposure to African economiesEnergy cost will hit cost of irrigationFood prices are only partially reflected in producers’ price
20Priorities for improved water management Improve the productivity of green water ensuring 90% of food production so far;Promote land use planning and water harvesting where possibleDevelop irrigated rice production while sharply reducing water consumptionRationalize traditional water use for irrigated vegetables and fruits and improve safety of waste water recyclingPromote wherever economically viable complementary irrigation, in particular for maize productionOrganize the recharge of ground water bodiesAddress water pricing issues to improve efficient water useAddress by regulations and enforcement water pollution from agricultural/ non agricultural activities
21Recent land use developments 1 – 1000 ha CountryKENYAETHIOPIABURUNDICAMEROONYear19902010Cereals1,785.42,542.44,957.49,233.0217.5237.0648.21,717.6% irrigated0.70.80.55.510.81.73.1Legumes+oil seeds956.61,275.91,234.42,281.7273.3284.7421.6975.6Roots + tubers + bananas240.3355.3484.81,107.4496.5611.6555.3918.4% irrigated + humid land5.110.320.744.9Industrial crops429.3515.6575.4837.860.429.6902.11,341.39.422.214.171.1246.1Vegetables + fruits172.8331.3524.3912.945.170.4345.9823.371.252.586.386.760.366.868.183.2TOTAL crops3,584.45,020.57,776.31,092.81,229.22,872.65,776.3Total irrigated + humid land163.5242.7487.1939.6142.2212.5391.4738.2IRRIGATED - FAO66.6116.0219.0350.414.430.821.034.2
22Recent land use developments 2 – 1000 ha CountryBeninBurkina FasoGhanaMaliYear19902010Cereals643.92,529.94,291.5853.01,602.12,438.7% irrigated126.96.36.199.15.7188.8.131.52Legumes+oil seeds210.2348.1660.3277.0606.9493.0648.8Roots + tubers + bananas221.6509.78.99.8714.31,873.97.424.3% irrigated + humid land0.720.120.934.4Industrial crops166.5415.1212.4515.2884.62,031.7258.6343.30.42.01.81.4Vegetables + fruits113.7154.642.156.9195.6423.084.3143.155.961.368.567.352.342.266.562.8Total crops1,355.82,476.13,453.66,839.92,824.56,537.63,281.95,128.5Total Irrigated + humid land74.9140.056.1176.6151.3359.7255.8787.4Irrigated -FAO9.723.015.421.42.630.318.0430.0
23Recent land use developments 3 – 1000 ha CountryNigeriaCameroonMadagascarSouth AfricaYear19902010Cereals15,400.016,104.7648.21,717.61,326.92,108.96,156.93,548.0% irrigated7.8184.108.40.206.885.730.043.0Legumes+oil seeds3,482.86,337.7421.6975.699.2149.2861.4881.77.035.3Roots + tubers + bananas3,248.88,519.7555.3918.4534.3628.792.189.5% irrigated + humid land220.127.116.112.38.09.7100Industrial crops4,101.55,985.6902.21,341.3510.5383.7427.1283.90.516.110.812.724.867.795.1Vegetables + fruits3,946.4345.8823.2192.8250.0342.6435.052.260.868.283.221.3Total crops28,559.940,510.42,872.65,776.32,663.73,550.67,881.15,237.9Total Irrigated + humid land2,536.25,174.1417.1936.61,371.12,085.22,715.42,632.5Irrigated -FAO232.8330.021.034.21,087.01,084.01,200.01,670.0
24ConclusionsInvestments for irrigation have been high in few countries only; In most cases, the expansion of the cropped area has been at least as high as the expansion of irrigated areas; A large proportion of irrigation takes place in humid lowlands, taping surface and shallow ground waters through archaic systems; Irrigation is developed for rice production in modern irrigation schemes and in humid lowlands and for vegetable production in humid lowlands; Only in South Africa irrigation is largely developed for maize, soybeans and eventually canola production and for intensive fruit production. Irrigation has more impact on nutrition quality than on food security in most countries, while in the Sahel zone, it significantly contributes to the supply of grains. Increasing public and private investments for irrigation should be combined with improved water efficiency and water productivity