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1 1 Justice sector in Latin America: Where does it stand? Alejandro Ponce The World Justice Project May 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "1 1 Justice sector in Latin America: Where does it stand? Alejandro Ponce The World Justice Project May 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 1 Justice sector in Latin America: Where does it stand? Alejandro Ponce The World Justice Project May 2012

2 2 World Justice Forum | | This presentation  Comparative analysis of current performance of justice institutions in Latin America

3 3 World Justice Forum | | Framework  Political dimension  Oversight of government branches and making accountable government officials  Social and economic dimension  Citizen security (criminal justice system)  Deterrence and redress, while ensuring that fundamental rights are protected  Dispute resolution (civil justice system)  Obtain remedies in conformity with fundamental rights (access, efficiency, and fairness)

4 4 World Justice Forum | | Framework  Political dimension  Social and economic dimension

5 5 Oversight function SF 1.3 Government powers are effectively limited by the judiciary Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011

6 6 Oversight function SF 1.3 Government powers are effectively limited by the judiciary Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011

7 7 Impunity SF 1.5 Government officials are sanctioned for misconduct Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011

8 8 World Justice Forum | |  Please assume that a high-ranking government officer is taking government money for personal benefit. Please also assume that one of his employees witnesses this conduct, reports it to the relevant authority, and provides sufficient evidence to prove it. Please assume that the press obtains the information and publishes the story. Which one of the following outcomes is most likely?  The accusation is completely ignored by the authorities (0.0)  An investigation is opened, but it never reaches any conclusions (0.5)  The officer is prosecuted and punished (through fines or time in prison) (1.0 )

9 9 World Justice Forum | |  Ciudad de México (27 febrero 2011).- De mil 779 personas denunciadas penalmente por la Secretaría de la Función Pública (SFP) por delitos asociados a corrupción, únicamente una ha sido consignada y quedó libre bajo fianza. Y es que la Ley de Servidores Públicos vigente no considera como delito grave el desvío, la malversación, el peculado ni ningún otro de los más de 300 que sanciona, y eso impide que los funcionarios que los cometen sean encarcelados.

10 10 World Justice Forum | | Framework  Political dimension  Social and economic dimension  Citizen security (criminal justice system)

11 11

12 12 Burglary rates Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011

13 13 World Justice Forum | | Business costs of crime and violence RegionScore Eastern Europe and Central Asia5.1 Sub-Saharan Africa4.3 East Asia & Pacific5.1 South Asia4.2 Latin America & Caribbean3.3 Middle East & North Africa5.3 Source: WEF Global Competitiveness Report

14 14 Conviction Rates (burglary) Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011

15 15 World Justice Forum | | Mob justice Region% without harm Eastern Europe and Central Asia70% Sub-Saharan Africa29% East Asia & Pacific62% South Asia45% Latin America & Caribbean41% Middle East & North Africa56% Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011 Assume that a criminal is apprehended by your neighbors after committing a serious crime. Which of the following two situations is more likely to happen? - The criminal gets beaten by the neighbors - The criminal is turned over to the authorities without harm

16 16 World Justice Forum | | Comparative analysis of the criminal justice system  Crimes are effectively investigated.  Crimes are effectively and timely adjudicated.  The correctional system is effective in reducing criminal behavior.  The criminal justice system is impartial.  The criminal justice system is free of corruption.  The criminal justice system is free of improper government influence.  The criminal justice system accords the accused due process of law.

17 17 World Justice Forum | | Effective criminal justice system RegionScore Eastern Europe and Central Asia0.45 Sub-Saharan Africa0.45 East Asia & Pacific0.54 South Asia0.45 Latin America & Caribbean0.42 Middle East & North Africa0.47 Developed economies0.75 Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011

18 18 Criminal justice system

19 19 World Justice Forum | | Comparative analysis of the civil justice system  People are aware of available remedies.  People can access and afford legal advice and representation.  People can access and afford civil courts.  Civil justice is free of discrimination.  Civil justice is free of corruption.  Civil justice is free of improper government influence.  Civil justice is not subject to unreasonable delays.  Civil justice is effectively enforced.

20 20 World Justice Forum | | Framework  Political dimension  Social and economic dimension  Citizen security (criminal justice system)  Dispute resolution (civil justice system)

21 21 World Justice Forum | | Civil dispute  During the past three years, have you or someone in your household had a conflict with someone who refused to fulfill a contract or pay a debt?  Which one of the following mechanisms was used to solve the conflict? Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011

22 22 World Justice Forum | | Civil disputes CountryCourtNo action Argentina38%15% Brazil 20%37% Chile 28%40% Colombia 31%24% El Salvador 40%21% Guatemala 36%34% Mexico 35%13% Peru 32%14% Venezuela 36%12% Middle Income w/o LA33%

23 23 World Justice Forum | | Civil disputes CountryNo action richNo action poor Argentina15%14% Brazil 31%42% Chile 25%49% Colombia 18%30% El Salvador 6%25% Guatemala 33%37% Mexico 9%17% Peru 14% Venezuela 7%22% Middle Income w/o LA32%33%

24 24 World Justice Forum | | Civil disputes CountryFairSlowExpensive Argentina39%15%44% Brazil 76%55%67% Chile 76%47%85% Colombia 59%15%51% El Salvador 38%12%60% Guatemala 68%33%65% Mexico 48%24%40% Peru 54%4%16% Venezuela 44%22%63% Middle Inc wo LA 54%21%39%

25 25 World Justice Forum | | Access to civil justice RegionScore Eastern Europe and Central Asia0.52 Sub-Saharan Africa0.48 East Asia & Pacific0.48 South Asia0.40 Latin America & Caribbean0.53 Middle East & North Africa0.55 Developed economies0.69 Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011

26 26 World Justice Forum | | Access to civil justice Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011

27 27 Access to justice

28 28 World Justice Forum | | Summary (1)  Substantial variation in the performance of the justice sector in the region  There is important variation in the oversight function, with some countries enjoying a fair system of checks and balances; however the perception of impunity among government officials who break the law remains widespread

29 29 World Justice Forum | | Summary (2)  The judicial sector struggles to provide protection from crime or to punish perpetrators of abuses. Nowadays, Latin American countries show the highest crime rates in the world and the criminal justice systems rank among the worst in the world.  The performance of civil justice system is mixed, although generally inaccessible for disadvantaged groups

30 30 Thank you Alejandro Ponce The World Justice Project 30


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