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© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Chapter 6: Family Counseling Chapter 7: Group Work Chapter 8: Consultation and Supervision 1
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Couples and Family Counseling 2
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning 1800s: Charity Organization Societies and “Friendly Visitors” worked with poor family Led to “social casework” –first time people were viewed systemically Also, around same time, Alfred Adler began to see families and believed education could help alleviate problems in children Until 1940s, families were generally not seen together due to pressure placed on therapist from the developing “individual approaches” to counseling 3
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning A number of approaches developed around the 1950s: Psychodyanmic: Ackerman; Boszormeyi-Nagy Multigenerational: Bowen Palo Alto: Bateson hired Haley, Weakland, Jackson, & Fry Looked at communication in systems Double-bind theory Applied principles of systems and cybernetics Out of Palo Alto came MRI Jackson, Haley, Satir, Madanes Focused on communication and family process 4
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Soon, people developed own theories Satir: Human validation process model Haley and Madanes: Strategic therapy Whitaker: Experiential approach Minuchin: Structural family therapy 1966: within MRI: Brief Family Therapy Center Eventually led to solution-focused family therapy 1970s: Milan Group More recently: Narrative family therapy (White and Epston) 5
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Today Over 50 states have marriage and family licensure Two main associations: AAMT and IAMFC (a division of ACA) Accreditation Bodies ▪ COAMFTE ▪ CACREP Efficacy of family therapy now shown 6
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Twelve Assumptions Held by Most Family Counselors (see pp ) 7
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Bertalanffy Explains the interaction of all types of systems Suprasystems Subsystems Interaction in one system affects all other systems 8
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Cybernetics Control mechanism in systems Regulatory process Used to avoid disequilibrium in systems Acts like thermostat See Box 6.1, p
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Boundaries and Information Flow in Family Systems Healthy system has semi-permeable boundaries Unhealthy: rigid or diffuse boundaries (See Box 6.2, p. 196) American culture allows for much variability in boundaries However, as Box 6.2 shows, too much rigidity or permeability leads to dysfunction 10
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Rules and Hierarchy Universal rules Idiosyncratic rules Rules can be overt or covert Rules often related to hierarchical structure Communication theory Watzlawick and others researched communication theory See 10 communication tenets, p
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning All couples bring unfinished business to relationship Unfinished business can lead to discontent as couples blame each other for their projected problems Family members will sometimes focus on one member (rather than own problems) This takes focus off of self or relationship Families will often bring in the “scapegoat” or IP and state they “have” the problem 12
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Stress Stressful contact of one member with extrafamilial forces (e.g., difficulty at work) Stressful contact of the whole family with extrafamilial forces (e.g., a natural disaster such as a hurricane) Stress at transitional or developmental points in the family (e.g., puberty, midlife crises, retirement, aging) Idiosyncratic (situational) stress (e.g., unexpected illness) See Box 6.3 Developmental Issues: See Table
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Believes that systems theory and cybernetics places too much emphasis on causal factors Social constructionists believe that couples and families “co- construct” their understanding of who they are Construction of self occurs through ongoing dialogue and nonverbal interactions among people and broader culture Change, therefore occurs through conversation with counselor Together, counselor and clients co-construct a new meaning- making system 14
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Virginia Satir Humanist, one of the major theorists of 20 th century Primary survival triad Four universal communication patterns: placater, blamer, computer, distracter Congruent, respectful, and caring parents yield healthy children Two well-known techniques Complete a family life facto chronology Family Sculpting 15
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Salvadore Minuchin Interactional and Transactional Rules Boundaries Structure and Hierarchy Some Techniques Joining Mapping Restructuring See Box 6.4, p
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Arose out of Palo Alto Group and work of Milton Erickson Theorists: Jay Haley, Cloé Madanes, Milan group Focused on changing communication sequences No focus on feelings (except to help people feel better) Concerned with how power is dispersed in families Focuses mostly on presenting problem Haley's Stages: social, problem, interaction, goal-setting Some techniques Telling client what to do when (when client will do it) Telling them what to do when knowing client will rebel Giving a metaphor (see quote, bottom of p. 205) 17
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Boszormenyi-Nagy Ways of relating passed down Loyalties, Ledger of indebtedness and entitlements Murray Bowen Differentiation of self Nuclear family emotional system Undifferentiated ego mass (we pick people of same psychological health –see Box 6.5, p. 209) Family projection system Individuals get triangulated Used genograms (see Figure 6.1, p. 208) 18
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Whitaker Says he has no theory, but see basic tenets (p. 209) I-Thou relationship Become genuine through interactions in therapy See quotes top and middle of page
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Robin Skynner and Nathan Ackerman Emphasis: How parents assist children through developmental stages Problems in each parent reflected through unconscious Couple explores how behaviors related to their own childhood Unfinished, unconscious problems become projected on family 20
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Focused on symptom relief Highly structured Focus on behaviors and cognitions Operant conditioning Classical conditioning Social learning (modeling) Changing negative automatic thoughts Integrates how problems get infused in family through the system A number of common elements in all that do this approach (see pp. 212) 21
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Michael White and David Epston Goal: To recreate how family comes to understand itself Based on postmodernism, social constructivism, and narrative reasoning Deconstruct past narrative and construct new ones General guidelines, see p
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Insoo Kim Bert and Steve de Shazer A pragmatic and future-oriented approach Based on social constructionism and post-modernism Assumes that clients can change quickly Focuses on solutions and use of problem free language See underlying assumptions, p
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Points to consider when working with couples and families from nondominant groups—see p. 215 Why are professional associations not being inclusive? American Association of Marriage and Family Counselors International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors 24
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Withholding treatment in order to see “whole” family Informed for “whole” family Confidentiality –can you assure it? Multiple (Dual) relationships—seeing a member individually and in the family? Individual or family counseling—which is better? Professional Associations: AAMFT, IAMFC Accreditation: CACREP; COAMFTE Credentialing: LMFT; NCA Knowing the law: child, spousal, family abuse; custody Insurance fraud: e.g., saying you’re seeing “1” member in family when you actually see whole family 25
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Understanding Our Client’s Family, Understanding Our Family To understand others, we need to understand self We need to examine how our family affected us and how the impact of our families can affect the people with whom we work 26
© Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 6: Family Counseling Chapter 7: Group Work Chapter 8: Consultation and Supervision 1 Section.
Copyright © 2005 Wadsworth Group. Brooks/Cole is an imprint of the Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Family Systems Therapy.
Family Systems Therapy Dr. Alfred Adler Dr. Murray Bowen Dr. Virginia Satir Dr. Carl Whitaker Dr. Salvador Minuchin Dr. Jay Haley Dr. Cloe’ Madanes (Haley)
Family Counseling Major Therapies 1950’s: Nathan Ackerman, Theodore Lidz, Lyman Wynne, Murray Bowen, and Carl Whitaker all broke away from psychodynamics.
Family Systems Theory Chapter 11. The Case of Jean and Derril Jean 42-year-old divorced African American female Derril 12-year-old multiracial male Referred.
Systems of Psychotherapy: A Transtheoretical Analysis Chapter 11 – Systemic Therapies.
Marriage and Family Therapy 1. Couples and Family Therapy Family Therapy Graduate Programs The Development of Family Therapy Assessment of Family.
Theories of Counseling: Systemic Approaches PowerPoint produced by Melinda Haley, M.S., New Mexico State University. “This multimedia product and its contents.
Family Systems Therapy. Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 14 (1) The Family Systems Perspective Individuals – are best understood.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2003 V. Classic Schools of Family Therapy, Part 1 Power Point presentation prepared by Leslie Barnes-Young, PhD, Francis Marion.
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Chapter 14 by Gerald Corey Brooks/Cole, A division of Cengage Learning.
In pairs, answer one of the following questions, as assigned: Describe how the following theorists/researchers have influenced the MFT profession as it.
Family Therapy A systemic approach. The family as a system Systems are composed of units who have some relationship to each other and are organized around.
Family Assessment and Interventions Chapter 15. Family A group of people connected emotionally, by blood or both that has developed patterns of interaction.
Chapter 14 Family Counseling in the Schools. Family Stressors Poverty Lack of sufficient health care Drug/alcohol addiction Exposure to violent.
Self-directed Reading & Research 2011 Ed Wohlmuth.
STRUCTURAL/STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPY. Founded on the immediacy of the present reality Oriented to solving problems Above all-contextual: referring to the.
Couple & Family Therapy : An Integrative Map of the Territory Jay L Lebow Chapter 4.
A Brief History of Family Therapy PSYC5790 Family Counseling: Theory and Practice.
Family Systems Theory. History The History of Family Systems Therapy Freud and Rogers believed that psychological problems were a result of neurotic.
The Field Matures: 1980 to the Present (Chapter 3)
Family Systems Theory & Concepts. Some Major Family Therapy Approaches b b ———— - Behavioral b b Virginia Satir - Communication b b Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy.
GAMESHOW CH. 3 PG CH. 5 PG By: Emily Ulma.
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Understanding Marriage and Family Dynamics Chapter 3.
SOLUTION-FOCUSED AND PARADOXICAL COUNSELING STRATEGIES Chapter 10 Brief Counseling:
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2003 VI. Classic Schools of Family Therapy, Part 2 Power Point presentation prepared by Leslie Barnes-Young, PhD, Francis Marion.
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Standards in the Profession: Ethics, Accreditation, Credentialing, and Multicultural/Social.
In pairs, answer the following questions and turn in one written response with both names on paper. Use Goldenberg, Yarhouse, and Genogram books)
Source of motivation Development of pathology Nature of change Therapeutic relationship Bowen- Outline.
Structural Family Therapy Marriage and Family Counseling Dr. Sparrow.
Introduction to Clinical Psychology: Science, Practice and Ethics Chapter 12 Humanistic, Experiential and Family Therapies This multimedia product and.
Human Systems: Couples and Families, Groups, Organizational and Community, Administrative and Counseling Supervision Chapter Six.
Chapter 3: Psychosocial Theory. Psychosocial Theory Chapter Objectives –To define the general concept of theory and explain how one makes use of theory.
Setting the Stage for Family Counseling/Therapy Psychoanalysis: Freud’s acknowledged the role of family relationships in personality development (after.
CHAPTER 6 Theory Applied to Practice. Five Contemporary Theoretical Orientations ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc.
Family Wellness. Family A group of persons united by ties of marriage, blood or adoption; consisting of a single household; interacting and communicating.
Therapeutic Models Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Cognitive.
Family Systems Therapy Dr. Arra PSY 202. Family Systems Therapy THEORY First developed by Alfred Adler in Vienna in the 1920’s First developed by Alfred.
Family Therapy Theory Doherty, W. J., and Baptiste, D. A., Jr. (1993). Theories emerging from family therapy. In P.G. Boss, W. J. Doherty, R. LaRossa,
Transparency 0 Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Group. Brooks/Cole is an imprint of the Wadsworth Group, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Theory and Practice.
Roles, Relationships, and Social Support Chapter 44.
3.1 FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS Building Strong Families.
Nilsa DeJesus. A. Integrative and alternative B. Postmodernism and social construction C. Postmodernism and narrative therapy D. All of the above.
Foundation Concepts in Family Therapy Some of the Core concepts covered in Chapters 1-4 EPSY 6393 with Dr. Sparrow Some of the Core concepts covered in.
Interpersonal Approaches to Psychotherapy Chapter 10.
Favors a multifaceted approach that is developmental and educative Emphasizes prevention Takes into account the effects of the community on the.
CHAPTER 23 COUNSELING SEXUAL MINORITIES. Homosexuality Homosexuality involves the affectional and/or sexual orientation to a person of the same sex.
Counselling Framework Tommy Sheppard, M.Ed (counselling)
Counseling Skills 1. © 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning The Office-the importance of a first impression Do Box 5.1, p. 151.
Chapter Five Murray Bowen’s Systems Therapy. Bowen’s early work Studied schizophrenic families Discovered that the “anxious attachment” or fused relationships.
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