Presentation on theme: "Hoofed mammals Ungulates. Ungulates: Refer to mammals with hooves Artiodactyla: even toed Perissodactyla: odd toed."— Presentation transcript:
Hoofed mammals Ungulates
Ungulates: Refer to mammals with hooves Artiodactyla: even toed Perissodactyla: odd toed
Hoofed mammals (ungulates) Order Perissodactyla Order Artiodactyla Weight borne on one central toe Weight shared between two central toes
Hoof a modified nail? Hooves, claws, and nails are all composed of two structures: the unguis (a scale-like plate; our finger- and toe-nails) and the subunguis (a softer layer, found as a very fine layer on the underside of our fingernails) which connect the unguis to the pad of the digit.
Hoof a good modification? Ungulates account for the majority of the herbivores in the world Over 257 species
Skulls of ungulates Equus - horse Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Ovis - sheep Sus - pig Camelus - camel
Perissodactyla Contains17 Recent species in three families: Equidae (horses), Tapiridae (tapirs), Rhinocerotidae (rhinoceroses)
Perrisodatyles are Herbivores Unique digestive system and dentition to suit their diet. Special bacteria in their intestines to digest cellulose.
Horse skull Long diastema Canines large in males, small or absent in females Cusps of cheekteeth joined by ridges
Equidae: True wild horses are called the Przewalski’s Horses: y.com/videos/jaws- and-claws-2-wild- horses.html y.com/videos/jaws- and-claws-2-wild- horses.html True wild horses do not look like the domesticated horse which has been bred by humans for over 4,000 years.
Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae (Rhinoceros) STATUS:Endangered DESCRIPTION: There are five species of rhinos The African species: white and black rhinos. Asian rhinos include the Indian and the Javan The five species range in weight from 750 pounds to 8,000 pounds and stand anywhere from four and a half to six feet tall.
Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae POPULATION: Black Rhino: 2,400 White Rhino: 7,500 Sumatran Rhino: 400 Javan Rhino: fewer than 100 Indian Rhino: more than 2,000
Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae (Rhinoceros)
Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae LIFESPAN: 35 years. HABITAT: Rhino habitat ranges from savannas to dense forests in tropical and subtropical regions.
Artiodactyla Artiodactyls are the most diverse, large, terrestrial mammals alive today. They are the fifth largest order of mammals, consisting of approximately 210 species.
Artiodactyla Ruminants Upper incisors absent, replaced in life by a hard pad on which lower incisors bite Suiformes (non ruminants) Male canines curl upward
Artiodactyla: Herbivores Artiodactyla are also herbivores Artiodactyla are also herbivores Most are Ruminants Most are Ruminants Digestion in ruminants occurs sequentially in a four- chambered stomach Digestion in ruminants occurs sequentially in a four- chambered stomach
Compared to the perissodactyla Compared to the perissodactyla Artiodactyla have cloven feet. Why the difference?
artiodactyls - 1 Capra hircus – goat Camelus dromedarius – camel Cervus timorensis - rusa Sus scrofa – pig
And finally, Cetacea Two suborders: Mysticeti Mysticeti Baleen whales Baleen whales Right whales Right whales Rorquals Rorquals Odontoceti Odontoceti Toothed whales Toothed whales Sperm whales Sperm whales Dolphins Dolphins
How can whales be related to artiodactyla? Astragali of the Eocene protocetids (left) and Artiocetus clavis (right), as compared to that of the pronghorn Antilocapra americana (centre). Note the distinct double-pulley shape. Astragali of the Eocene protocetids (left) and Artiocetus clavis (right), as compared to that of the pronghorn Antilocapra americana (centre). Note the distinct double-pulley shape.
Molecular evidence now indicates clearly that cetaceans are actually artiodactyls that have become totally aquatic
Mysticeti Balaena australis Southern Right While Balaenopteridae - Rorquals Balaenoptera physalus – Fin whale Balaenidae – Right whales Megaptera novaeangliae - Humpback
Baleen is used to filter plankton Long, fine baleen of Blue Whale, suitable for filtering krill (tiny crustaceans) Short, coarse baleen of Minke Whale, suitable for trapping small fish Baleen hangs down from palate
Grooves on throat of rorquals are normally pulled tight to make mouth into a beak But when feeding, the whale relaxes the grooves and takes in gallons of water, which it pushes through the baleen and expels, filtering out the prey Balaenoptera musculus – Blue whale
Odontoceti – toothed whales Delphinus delphis – Common dolphin Physeter macrocephalus – Sperm whale Homodont (teeth all alike) usually dozens in each jaw Sperm whale tooth Orcinus orca – Orca or Killer whale