2Ungulates: Refer to mammals with hooves Artiodactyla: even toedPerissodactyla: odd toed
3Hoofed mammals (ungulates) Order PerissodactylaOrder ArtiodactylaWeight borne on one central toeWeight shared between two central toes
4Hoof a modified nail?Hooves, claws, and nails are all composed of two structures: the unguis (a scale-like plate; our finger- and toe-nails) and the subunguis (a softer layer, found as a very fine layer on the underside of our fingernails) which connect the unguis to the pad of the digit.
5Hoof a good modification? Ungulates account for the majority of the herbivores in the worldOver 257 species
15Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae (Rhinoceros) STATUS:EndangeredDESCRIPTION:There are five species of rhinosThe African species: white and black rhinos.Asian rhinos include the Indian and the JavanThe five species range in weight from 750 pounds to 8,000 pounds and stand anywhere from four and a half to six feet tall.
16Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae POPULATION:Black Rhino: 2,400 White Rhino: 7,500 Sumatran Rhino: 400 Javan Rhino: fewer than 100 Indian Rhino: more than 2,000
29And finally, Cetacea Two suborders: Mysticeti Odontoceti Baleen whales Right whalesRorqualsOdontocetiToothed whalesSperm whalesDolphins
30How can whales be related to artiodactyla? Astragali of the Eocene protocetids (left) and Artiocetus clavis (right), as compared to that of the pronghorn Antilocapra americana (centre). Note the distinct double-pulley shape.
31Molecular evidence now indicates clearly that cetaceans are actually artiodactyls that have become totally aquatic
32Mysticeti Balaenopteridae - Rorquals Balaenidae – Right whales Megaptera novaeangliae - HumpbackBalaena australisSouthern Right WhileBalaenoptera physalus – Fin whale
33Baleen is used to filter plankton Long, fine baleen of Blue Whale, suitable for filtering krill (tiny crustaceans)Baleen hangs down from palateShort, coarse baleen of Minke Whale, suitable for trapping small fish
34Balaenoptera musculus – Blue whale Grooves on throat of rorquals are normally pulled tight to make mouth into a beakBut when feeding, the whale relaxes the grooves and takes in gallons of water, which it pushes through the baleen and expels, filtering out the prey
35Odontoceti – toothed whales Delphinus delphis – Common dolphinOrcinus orca – Orca or Killer whaleHomodont (teeth all alike) usually dozens in each jawPhyseter macrocephalus – Sperm whaleSperm whale tooth