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Hoofed mammals Ungulates.

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Presentation on theme: "Hoofed mammals Ungulates."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hoofed mammals Ungulates

2 Ungulates: Refer to mammals with hooves
Artiodactyla: even toed Perissodactyla: odd toed

3 Hoofed mammals (ungulates)
Order Perissodactyla Order Artiodactyla Weight borne on one central toe Weight shared between two central toes

4 Hoof a modified nail? Hooves, claws, and nails are all composed of two structures: the unguis (a scale-like plate; our finger- and toe-nails) and the subunguis (a softer layer, found as a very fine layer on the underside of our fingernails) which connect the unguis to the pad of the digit.

5 Hoof a good modification?
Ungulates account for the majority of the herbivores in the world Over 257 species

6 Skulls of ungulates Perissodactyla Ovis - sheep Equus - horse
Artiodactyla Sus - pig Camelus - camel

7 Perissodactyla Contains17 Recent species in three families:
Equidae (horses), Tapiridae (tapirs), Rhinocerotidae (rhinoceroses)

8 Perissodactyls: Equidae examples
Equus caballus Feral horse (Mustang) Przewalski’s Horse Equus asinus donkey 3 species Zebra

9 Perrisodatyles are Herbivores
Unique digestive system and dentition to suit their diet. Special bacteria in their intestines to digest cellulose.

10 Canines large in males, small or absent in females
Horse skull Cusps of cheekteeth joined by ridges Long diastema Canines large in males, small or absent in females

11 Equidae: True wild horses are called the Przewalski’s
True wild horses do not look like the domesticated horse which has been bred by humans for over 4,000 years. Horses:

12 Equidae: Zebra’s 3 species: Grevy’s Plains Mountain

13 Perissodactyl: Tapiridae (Tapirs)
Diet: Herbivore Average life span in the wild:25 to 30 years Size:Height at shoulder, 29 to 42 inches Weight:500 to 800 lbs Status:Endangered

14 Perissodactyl: Tapiridae = Tapirs
Malayan Tapir Mountain Tapirs Lowland Tapir Bairds Tapir

15 Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae (Rhinoceros)
STATUS:Endangered DESCRIPTION: There are five species of rhinos The African species: white and black rhinos. Asian rhinos include the Indian and the Javan The five species range in weight from 750 pounds to 8,000 pounds and stand anywhere from four and a half to six feet tall.

16 Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae
POPULATION: Black Rhino: 2,400 
White Rhino: 7,500
Sumatran Rhino: 400
Javan Rhino: fewer than 100
Indian Rhino: more than 2,000


18 Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae (Rhinoceros)

19 Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae
LIFESPAN: 35 years. HABITAT: Rhino habitat ranges from savannas to dense forests in tropical and subtropical regions.


21 Artiodactyla Artiodactyls are the most diverse, large, terrestrial mammals alive today. They are the fifth largest order of mammals, consisting of approximately 210 species.

22 Suborders and families of Artiodactyla
1 Domestic Cow Ruminantia 2 Cape Buffalo Ruminantia 3 White-tailed Deer Ruminantia 4 Pygmy (Hippopotaminae) 5 Caribou Ruminantia 6 Giraffe Ruminantia 7Hippopotamus (Hippopotaminae) 8South American LamaTylopoda 9White-lipped PeccaryTayassuidae 10 Common Warthog Suidae 11Domestic Pig Suidae 12 Camel Tylopoda 13Collared PeccaryTayassuidae 14Bison Ruminantia (Bovidae)

23 Artiodactyla Ruminants Upper incisors absent, replaced in life by a hard pad on which lower incisors bite Suiformes (non ruminants) Male canines curl upward

24 Artiodactyla: Herbivores
Artiodactyla are also herbivores Most are Ruminants Digestion in ruminants occurs sequentially in a four-chambered stomach


26 Compared to the perissodactyla
Artiodactyla have cloven feet. Why the difference?

27 artiodactyls - 1 Capra hircus – goat Cervus timorensis - rusa Camelus dromedarius – camel Sus scrofa – pig

28 artiodactyls - 2 Antilope cervicapra - blackbuck
Bos taurus x Bos indicus – cattle Bubalus bubalis – buffalo Bos javanicus – banteng

29 And finally, Cetacea Two suborders: Mysticeti Odontoceti Baleen whales
Right whales Rorquals Odontoceti Toothed whales Sperm whales Dolphins

30 How can whales be related to artiodactyla?
Astragali of the Eocene protocetids (left) and Artiocetus clavis (right), as compared to that of the pronghorn Antilocapra americana (centre). Note the distinct double-pulley shape.

31 Molecular evidence now indicates clearly that cetaceans are actually artiodactyls that have become totally aquatic

32 Mysticeti Balaenopteridae - Rorquals Balaenidae – Right whales
Megaptera novaeangliae - Humpback Balaena australis Southern Right While Balaenoptera physalus – Fin whale

33 Baleen is used to filter plankton
Long, fine baleen of Blue Whale, suitable for filtering krill (tiny crustaceans) Baleen hangs down from palate Short, coarse baleen of Minke Whale, suitable for trapping small fish

34 Balaenoptera musculus – Blue whale
Grooves on throat of rorquals are normally pulled tight to make mouth into a beak But when feeding, the whale relaxes the grooves and takes in gallons of water, which it pushes through the baleen and expels, filtering out the prey

35 Odontoceti – toothed whales
Delphinus delphis – Common dolphin Orcinus orca – Orca or Killer whale Homodont (teeth all alike) usually dozens in each jaw Physeter macrocephalus – Sperm whale Sperm whale tooth

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