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Lecture 12 Perissodactyla (odd-toed) & Artiodactyla (even-toed)

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 12 Perissodactyla (odd-toed) & Artiodactyla (even-toed)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 12 Perissodactyla (odd-toed) & Artiodactyla (even-toed)

2 Perissodactyla & Artiodactyla 3 Families 10 Families

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4 Shared Characteristics Relatively large, hoofed, terrestrial herbivores Ungulates – Walk on the tips of their toes on keratinized hoofs. Cursorial movement Mostly hypsodont teeth, with complex occlusal surfaces.

5 Plantigrade Digitigrade Unguligrade SHARED CHARACTERISTICS

6 Mesaxonic Paraxonic tapir rhino horse pig deer camel pronghorn “double-pulley” astragalus in artios limits distal limb motion to single plane

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8 Major CRANIODENTAL trends in ungulate evolution: Omnivore/carnivore pointy incisors & canines large temporalis, coronoid process; small angular pr. of dentary cheekteeth tritubercular or bunodont, Often brachyodont Herbivore flat incisors, small or no canines; diastema small temporalis, coronoid process; large angular pr. cheekteeth flat for grinding; lophodont, selenodont, bilophodont. Often hypsodont SHARED CHARACTERISTICS

9 Masticators Croppers

10 Rumination (foregut fermentation) Hindgut fermentation DIFFERING CHARACTERISTICS (Ruminant)

11 Cellose digested: 60% 40-45%

12 Adaptation differences Quantity vs. Quality – Perissodactyla – high passage rate, low digestion – Artiodactyla – slower passage rate, more digestion

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14 Perissodactyla “odd-toed”

15 Order Perissodactyla: 3 families, 6 genera,ca 17 species Family Equidae (horses, asses, zebras) 1 genus, ca. 8 species Family Tapiridae (tapirs) 1 genus, 4 species Family Rhinocerotidae (rhinos) 4 genera, 5 species. -MESAXONIC

16 Mesaxonic Paraxonic tapir rhino horse pig deer camel pronghorn “double-pulley” astragalus in artios limits distal limb motion to single plane

17 Family Tapiridae Relatively primitive living mammal Perissodactyla

18 Family Tapiridae Originated in North America and spread to Asia and South America Extirpated from NA in Pleistocene Perissodactyla

19 Family Tapiridae Nose and upper lip form a pronounced, flexible proboscis (like an elephant) Assists with feeding (7 th min) Perissodactyla

20 Family Rhinocerotidae Large and heavyset with a prehensile upper lip Family name refers to horn – Agglutinated keratinized horn Neither horn attached to bone Perissodactyla

21 glutenized, keratinized fibers

22 Family Rhinocerotidae Geographic extant limited to tropical and subtropical habitat because of poaching and habitat destruction Perissodactyla

23 Family Rhinocerotidae All species considered endangered or critically endangered Perissodactyla

24 Family Equidae Relatively long, slender limbs, and only the 3 rd digit remains functional Perissodactyla

25 Family Equidae Perissodactyla

26 Family Equidae Literally shaped the formation, economics, and culture of human societies over the last 5000 years: see book “Guns, germs, and steel” Perissodactyla 62 Spanish soldiers on horses took down an Inca empire.

27 Family Equidae Different than other families of Perissodactyla, Equids exhibit group living. Perissodactyla

28 Artiodactyla (even-toed)

29 Order Artiodactyla: 10 families, 80 genera, >220 species! Suborder Suiformes Family Suidae-pigs Family Tayassuidae -peccaries Family Hippopotamidae-hippos Suborder Tylopoda Family Camelidae-camels, guanaco, llama, alpaca Suborder Ruminantia Infraorder Tragulina Family Tragulidae-chevrotain, mouse deer Infraorder Pecora Superfamily Giraffoidea Family Giraffidae-giraffes Superfamily Cervoidea Family Moschidae-musk deer Family Cervidae-deer, elk, caribou, moose, reindeer Family Antilocapridae-pronghorn Superfamily Bovoidea Family Bovidae-bison, muskox, goats, sheep, antelope, cows

30 Mesaxonic Paraxonic tapir rhino horse pig deer camel pronghorn “double-pulley” astragalus in artios limits distal limb motion to single plane

31 Funcions: -enable males to carry out combat in competition for mates -secondarily used for display, indicators of social status, antipredator defense, secretion delivery Cranial appendages

32 bovid True “horns” only found in bovids (Bovidae). -unbranched and permanent -Inner bony core, extension of frontal bone -no parts are shed Cranial appendages

33 antilocaprid Cranial appendages Pronghorns (found only in Antilocapridae) -Similar bony core to bovids -horny sheath shed annually

34 cervid Cranial appendages True antlers only in Cervidae -entirely bony when fully developed -extension of frontal bone -shed periodically (usually annually in temperate zones) -during growth, covered with velvet (highly vascularized)

35 giraffe Cranial appendages Giraffe “horns” -bony processes, but not outgrowths of the frontal bone -situated over sutures b/w frontal and parietal bones -permanently covered with skin and hair -present from birth in both sexes

36 rhino Cranial appendages Rhinoceros “horns” -non-bony -solid mass of hardened epidermal cells formed from cluster of long dermal papillae -resulting fibers hair-like, but grow differently from true hairs -not attached to underlying nasal bones

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38 Extensive diversity

39 Suborder Suiformes Family Suidae-pigs Family Tayassuidae -peccaries Family Hippopotamidae-hippos

40 Quite different compared to the rest of artiodactyla – Simple stomach – don’t ruminate (no cud) – Less complex bunodont cheek teeth – Canines are present and tusk like – Suborder Suiformes

41 Suborder Tylopoda Family Camelidae -camels, guanaco, llama, alpaca Only plantigrade or fully digitgrade ungulates (I know, how can you be a plantigrade ungulate?) Lack horns or antlers. ( they bite for dominance ) Remarkable ability to conserve water ( loose up to 40% of water weight ).

42 Infraorder Tragulina Family Tragulidae -chevrotain, mouse deer Infraorder Pecora Superfamily Giraffoidea Family Giraffidae -giraffes Superfamily Cervoidea Family Moschidae -musk deer Family Cervidae-deer, elk, caribou, moose, reindeer Family Antilocapridae-pronghorn Superfamily Bovoidea Family Bovidae-bison, muskox, goats, sheep, antelope, cows Suborder Ruminantia

43 Grauer and Higgins 1994, Thewissen et al (Nature) Agnarsson and May-Collado 2008 Cetartiodactyla?

44 Hunting 10.7 million people hunt Artiodactylas each year in the US. Millions of WTD harvested each year. In Alaska, around 71,000 people hunt each year. 22,000 Caribou are harvested each year 1,000 Dall sheep 300 Muskox 13,000 Sitka black-tailed deer 500 Mountain goat 10,000 Moose 100 Bison 50 Elk USFWS = Hunting statistics,


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