Presentation on theme: "START DAY 2 REVIEW OF METAPHOR Why metaphor? Anatomy of metaphor. Target and Source Domains. Correspondence Mappings Implications and Rhetorical Direction."— Presentation transcript:
START DAY 2 REVIEW OF METAPHOR Why metaphor? Anatomy of metaphor. Target and Source Domains. Correspondence Mappings Implications and Rhetorical Direction Mappings and sub-mappings Four Major Conceptual Metaphors Now: Complex Dynamical Systems and their metaphors.
DIVIDED ATTENTION Focusing Focusing sense organs and consciousness – directing mental altertness. stressDiversify and increase this capacity without stress. Alternating Alternating modality, activity, frames. multi-taskingSimultaneous ( multi-tasking ). Executive Executive function. Enhancers Enhancers : separate modalities; simplicity; large working memory; practice.
ORDERS OF CONSCIOUSNESS SubjectveobjectiveSubjectve experience becomes objective. constructionStages in construction of mental representations. reflectedChaotic flow can then be reflected upon. higher orderEach higher order of consciousness objectifies what was subjective in the previous order. RelationshipsRelationships among concepts – including metaphor – can then be experienced, generating new experience. broader spectrumReflect on broader spectrum of interests, roles, identities, etc., how they may clash or integrate. MultipleMultiple perspectives possible. metaphor-awareBecoming ‘metaphor-aware’ may further this.
As we already observed Conflicts do not always work as we hope… What We May Wish For What Often Happens Disputants will see conflict in perspective. The conflict tends to continue, self-reinforcing. Start carefully, move in constructive direction. No matter where you start, you end up with same conflict. We will find the basic causes or needs. No simple cause. Conflict is the result of misunderstanding. Result of long history. Can take factors separately.Many factors combining. Move along, step by step, to resolution. Can’t see where we are going, result is unpredictable. Stay on path. Easily get off track, over- react, or withdraw.
Billiards is Complicated Conflicts can be complicated.
Very often mediators act as though… separate parts.The conflict can be broken down into its separate parts. stepsConflict resolution can be done in a series of pre- defined steps. shapedplaceEach part can be re-shaped, moved into place. fittogetherThen the whole can be fit back together into an agreement. straighten outWe can simply straighten out the understanding of each party. Not always true... emerge roughmultiple dynamics emergeerupt Events occur, grievances emerge, terrain becomes rough, multiple perspectives, multiple dynamics emerge, emotions erupt…
Contrast Classes of Systems Complicated Complex Something happens – can move things off course, cause malfunction, problem. You correct one problem – several new problems arise. Something happens – many things change, mutually adjust, maybe a problem, maybe not. You correct one problem – then move to next. An event occurs, you study it, figure out what to do. An event occurs; while you study it, it gets much worse. Small input – small output. Small input – can escalate to crisis. If needed, can force result. Force has unpredictable result.
Contrast (continued) Complicated Complex If you don’t do anything, no changes occur. Many elements, work autonomously, strongly linked. If conditions are right – can’t prevent change. Many elements, work together, weakly linked. Can separate elements and study each separately. Elements studied separately give few clues as to behavior of whole. Outcome is specific, narrow, short-term. Outcome is pervasive, spreading, feeds on itself, lasting. Changes occur in direct response to inputs. Change every moment, stable patterns form, outcomes emerge.
Recalling a Complex Case Each element only makes sense in context. ‘Hair trigger’ sudden escalation. Confrontation, strong urging changes little. You get agreement on parts, but no overall agreement. Just when you thought you would give up, progress occurs. Solve one problem, more problems arise. Change one aspect, other things change too. Changes occur on their own. Spontaneous resolution.
Exercise: 2 people. Find someone new to form a pair. Think of a case (or some life event) that meets some or all of these criteria. Identify which criteria applied. Recall the outcome of the case or event. Identify what you believe were they key influences that you had on the outcome.
What Are the Formal Features of Dynamical Systems? MultipleMultiple Factors / Dimensions / Levels. –Internal, external. –Connections, links, loops – within, between levels. Feedback –Forces, flow, movement: Feedback. TimeTime – we watch system over time. StateState of System changes continuously. –Non-Linear. –Emergent states or outcomes.
Formal Features of Dynamical Systems (continued) BalanceBalance, episodic, periodic, chaotic… Attractors –Tendencies conceived as Attractors. –Single, multiple, latent, manifest. Memory –Form of topographic Memory. Rules –Can simulate with Rules (functional; ‘shadow’). UnbalanceUnbalance –Stress. –Unstable equilibrium. –Flip to other attractor. –Vacillate and adapt. –Chaos; ‘edge of chaos’. –Crisis, collapse, devastation.
Landlord-Tenant Case Tenant has lived in house for 2.5 years, mostly keeps up with rent, but has gotten months' behind on occasion and Landlord has not complained or pressured her and been willing to wait for her to pay, which she always has done. They have gotten along and have helped each other from time to time. Now Landlord says Tenant is “way behind” on rent and owes over $3,000. In addition Tenant is leaving the lights on and turns the heat up higher than needed (utilities are included in the rent) just to "run up the bill" and that this hurts him.
After so much time passed without payment, Landlord visited the house. Instead of knocking at the door, Landlord yelled from the street. Tenant was embarrassed, she called him names. When they were face-to-face she spat on him, slapped him, and then turned around and pulled her trousers down to insult him. "This is not nice," Landlord says, and it made him very angry. So he decided to call the police and file assault charges and to evict her. He just didn't want to deal with her anymore after this incident. She lists inadequacies of apartment, wants to move out.
simple, complicated, or complex. Discuss cases that are… simple, complicated, or complex. If complex – how can we plan what to do?
Real situations are seldom like this simple flow/feedback loop
Trying to map real-life conflicts can seem hopeless - no effective method. 19
2 Outcomes By Defining 2 Outcomes in Mediation We Can Begin to Comprehend the Complexity 1 - Overt conflict. 2 - Understanding, cooperation, agreement. Now We Can 'Mind Map’
Case S: A married couple is seeking mediation of their divorce. “We’ve come to a point in our marriage where we can’t go any further.” They have children who they both want to thrive (but they are young and are showing emotional stress). “The kids may not do well, they are so vulnerable.” There is consumer debt, and equity in retirement accounts and home is in doubt. “We just followed what everyone was doing.” Each of them is sad and feels like a failure in the marriage. “…I feel sad most of the time – because of the failure of our marriage."
List Factors Here is a list of possible factors that can influence this mediation: Agreement to get a divorce. Sadness, feelings of inadequacy due to divorce. Exercise Exercise Both wanting their young children to be happy and have a good life. How emotionally and developmentally vulnerable are the children? Complex marital finances.
MODEL THE CASE S combined influence of multiple factors. Based on mind map to two mediation outcomes, and combined influence of multiple factors. 3 ways Each factor can influence the model in 3 ways : +- (1)momentary + or - impact positive (2)longer-term positive interactions negative (3)longer-term negative interactions [Simulation]Simulation
As a result of simulation… overviewMediators now have overview of factors and a perspective on their relative influence. focusCan choose which factors to focus on. agendaForms an “agenda” based not only on client input, but on evaluation of which factors are most likely to be affected in mediation.
With Complexity, What Metaphors Do We Use? dynamicalsystemNow we understand conflict resolution as a dynamical relationship system. metaphorsTo what extent is our understanding based on metaphors? WhatWhat metaphors? metaphors understoodHow to translate this into metaphors more easily understood by disputants? cognitive complexityEnabling greater cognitive complexity.
Bringing Together Dynamical Simulation & Metaphors What questions might you ask? Work in pairs or groups of 3. 1.Use what we learned from dynamical simulation. -Take each agenda item List Factors Exmpl -Think of any Journey metaphor and form a question (e.g., starting point, path, destination, obstacles… ) - Share with whole group. List FactorsExmpl 2.Form more questions; try to extend and elaborate metaphors to include dynamics. - Share with whole group. skip on skip on
Metaphoric Re-Frame Using Your Knowledge of Complexity 28 “We’ve come to a point in our marriage where we can’t go any further.” Simple metaphor: Marriage is a Journey: End of the road. Exercise Exercise Metaphor for Complexity: Journeys on multiple dimensions, parallel territories: Physically we go separate ways. Economically we share a road map. Parentally we coordinate our movements…
Metaphoric Re-Frame Using Your Knowledge of Complexity 29 “…I feel sad most of the time – because of the failure of our marriage." Simple metaphor: Marriage is a Journey: Can’t get self out of rut. Exercise Exercise Metaphor for Complexity: Slippery Surface or Slope, Requires Skill – agility, balance.
Metaphoric Re-Frame Using Your Knowledge of Complexity 30 “The kids may not do well, they are vulnerable.” Simple metaphor: Marriage/Divorce is a Journey: Dangers on the road. Exercise Exercise Metaphor for Complexity: Kids flying by the seat of their pants… the can lose their bearings… but can learn to use radar, navigation aids.
How are we using the Journey Metaphor differently? In map of the Journey metaphor. Some sub-domains need to be added? 31
What Metaphors Work For the Self-Organizing Flux of Complex Systems? We will call this conceptual metaphor by a strange name… Now we look more closely to see how the metaphors we have already studied are fundamentally part of our understanding of dynamical systems.
Sub-mappings; Some are expansions of metaphors we already know well
Exercise: whole group Divorce court order says young child shall call Father once per week, but calls occur only about half the time. Father wants the court to declare a penalty so Mother will follow the rules. Note Game metaphors – which ones? At how many levels does metaphor apply? Discuss interactions, linkages, balance and imbalance. What might emerge over time?
Retained Plans or Memory Building designs are a kind of memory. Topography of territory Characteristics of Path
"she hit me where it hurts the most and then left." Exercise: 2 volunteers for fishbowl or whole group In a case involving an estate dispute among adult children of deceased Mother, Son had intense argument with Mother just before she died, unresolved before death. He is now uncooperative because "she hit me where it hurts the most and then left." What simple metaphor do you notice? Name as many different dimensions as you can on which there is action or movement. Which dimensions might be influenced in mediation?
Links, Looped Connections that provide Feedback At attaching joints
In a divorce case, Mother wants to move to a distant city after divorce. Father says he will lose connection with the children and their relationship will be undermined. Fishbowl or whole group: 2 volunteers In a divorce case, Mother wants to move to a distant city after divorce. Father says he will lose connection with the children and their relationship will be undermined. Note the simple metaphors. What are possible metaphors relating to self-organizing dynamical systems? Form questions.
System Equilibrium - Attractor Path of system between 2 attractors
Exercise: Role Play Using Complexity Metaphors to Guide a Mediation Two Mediator volunteers. Two Disputant volunteers. Fish bowl.
Sonja, an adolescent, has lived with her father since her parents divorced when she was young. Sonja’s mother lives over two hours away, has always been preoccupied with her own career, and sees Sonja only every few weeks. Sonja and her father love each other and have had a good relationship over the years. Her father has worked hard to make up for the fact that Sonja’s mother is not very involved in her life. Sonja had been a good student, but recently her grades have gone down. Her teachers say she is distracted and uninterested in her work and seems no longer to have good friends in school. Recently Sonja told her father that she wants to move out of the house and move into an apartment with new friends who are two years older than she is. She wants the independence and freedom of living on her own. In the state in which they live she is old enough to make such a decision with or without parental permission. She has a job that will give her some but not all the money she would need to live on her own in a shared flat. Sally case
Her father is normally a calm, reasonable man. However, he is frightened and angry about this idea and confused about what to do. He believes Sonja is too young and inexperienced, and he is not acquainted with the friends she proposes to live with. He is concerned she will not have money, will drop out of school, and have other kinds of trouble in her life. He has told Sonja about his worries, often acting angrily and raising his voice. She says she is going to move out, she has a right to do so if she wants to, her father can’t keep her in his house, and that she will be fine. Her father says that she can’t make it with so little money, and that if she moves out he is not going to support her. The school has recommended to the father that they attempt mediation, which Sonja has agreed to do, evidently to try to get her father to calm down.
Sonja and her father Father Father: “I don’t like this idea at all. You were getting along fine before and now you have fallen into some kind of a hole. Living on your own will only lead to trouble. I’ve done what I can and you don’t seem to want what I have to offer anymore, so I’m not going to help you make a mess of your life. You figure out where you’re going to get the money you need to live on. Do you have any idea what you’re getting into – the pitfalls? You have no idea what’s around the corner – you’re heading for a dead-end life. Sonja Sonja: “You can’t keep me from going. I’m leaving. It’s my life and I get to say where I go and what I do now, and this is what I want. As far as school is concerned, you don’t need to worry because I want to finish school. You’re still my father and I love you but I don’t want to be in your house anymore – I want to be in my house, making my own choices, spending time with the people I like and having some fun for a change.