Presentation on theme: "LABOUR AND HEALTH. OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS AND OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES, THEIR GENERAL PREVENTIVE MEASURES. PECULIARITIES OF LABOUR HYGIENE OF DIFFERENT MEDICAL."— Presentation transcript:
LABOUR AND HEALTH. OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS AND OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES, THEIR GENERAL PREVENTIVE MEASURES. PECULIARITIES OF LABOUR HYGIENE OF DIFFERENT MEDICAL PERSONNEL Lecturer: Kostiantyn Zagorodniuk i Kiev –
PLAN OF LECTURE: 1. Hygiene of labour as a prophylactic discipline. Its subject of study, methods of research, main directions of this branch of hygiene. 2. Classification of dangerous and hazardous industrial factors, their characteristics. 3. Physiology and psychology of labour as constituent parts of the hygiene of labour, development of fatigability and its influence on the work capacity. Methods of fatigability prevention and work capacity increase. 4. Legislation of Ukraine concerning hygiene of labour. 5. Occupational diseases and their classification, division and structure of the occupational pathology and traumatism in the Ukrainian industry. 6. General characteristic of the Ukrainian industry, sanitary and hygienic working conditions: hygienic peculiarities of work in the mining industry; hygienic peculiarities of work in the machine-building industry; peculiarities of the working hygiene of the medical personnel. 7. Measures directed on the improvement of the working conditions.
HYGIENE OF LABOUR is the prophylactic discipline, that studies the influence of the working activity and the industrial environment on the workers’ organisms with a purpose of development on this basis of the sanitary and hygienic, medical and prophylactic, organizing measures, directed on the creation of the healthy working conditions and increase of its productivity.
THE SUBJECT OF LABOUR HYGIENE STUDY IS: 1. Working processes and the physiological reactions of the workers body to create the rational work and rest regimens using the received data for different types of work; 2. Industrial processes and unfavorable environment factors that appear during their performance with the purpose of the hygienic regulation and working out of the medical measures to improve the working conditions; 3. State of health and worker’s morbidity that can be influenced by the hazardous and dangerous industrial factors in the industrial conditions; pathogenesis of the occupationally caused diseases with the purpose of measures created for their prevention.
METHODS OF RESEARCH USED IN THE HYGIENE OF LABOUR: physical and chemical methods; physiological methods; clinic-statistic and sanitary-statistic methods; experimental researches; researches of the occupational morbidity pathogenesis.
MAIN DIRECTIONS OF THE HYGIENE OF LABOUR: studying of peculiarities of physical, chemical, biological and psycho-physiological characteristics in the conditions of industrial environments; physiology of work: (ergonomics; psychology of work); industrial toxicology; occupational diseases and intoxication; studying of the morbidity structure and medical aid; organization of the sanitary inspection.
DANGEROUS AND HAZARDOUS FACTORS Dangerous environmental factors are those which are able to influence the body and cause very serious functional disorders in organs and systems, which may lead to death. Hazardous factors can commit an unfavorable influence on the functional state of the body, decrease work capacity, cause the occupational diseases appearance, their acute condition and unfavorable clinical course.
FACTORS OF THE INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT ARE (ACCORDING TO THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE ORGANISM) (SLIDE 1 OF 2): physical (machines, and mechanisms, the increased or decreased temperature, the increased level of noise, vibration on the working place; increased or decreased atmospheric pressure in the working zone and its rapid change; increased level of the ionizing and electromagnetic irradiation in the working zone and other physical phenomena); chemical (organic and non-organic chemical compounds in the gaseous, vapor, aerosols and liquids);
FACTORS OF THE INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT ARE (ACCORDING TO THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE ORGANISM) (SLIDE 1 OF 2): biological (pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, spirochetes, fungi, protozoa;, products of their life activity and some organic substances of the natural origin); psycho-physiological (physical: replacing of the loads, doing the certain movements and being in the static position; nerve- psychiatric overstrain of the brain, analyzers, routine work and emotional fatigability).
APPEARANCE OF DANGEROUS AND HAZARDOUS FACTORS IN THE INDUSRTRIAL ENVIRONMENT IS CAUSED BY: incorrect planning of the working process (irrational regimen of work and rest, forced position of the body, excessive strengthening of certain organs and systems); low industrial culture, absence or unsatisfactory work of sanitary-technical devices and equipment; complicatedness of certain sanitary and technical problems solution (measures to fight the mining dust, normalization of microclimate on the working places of industries with black and color metal, in the deep mines); peculiarities of the working process connected with the overloading of the nerve-emotional sphere and other systems of the body (complicated operator works in tight timing conditions, work in the extreme conditions and so on).
TASKS OF PHYSIOLOGY OF LABOUR (SLIDE 1 OF 2): 1) physiological assessment of the new types of work organization, new technologies of the modern equipment, which is used in the industry and agriculture; 2) studying of the physiology-hygienic peculiarities of the working activity of the new professions, that deal with the modern types of equipment; 3) setting up physiological patterns of appearance and mechanisms of formation of the following negative states: fatigability, monotony, hypodynamia, nerve-emotional stress, overstrain;
TASKS OF PHYSIOLOGY OF LABOUR (SLIDE 1 OF 2): 4) studying of the character and mechanism of the activity of such factors, as ultra-, infra- sound, ionizing and laser irradiation, electromagnetic field and so on; 5) studying of peculiarities of the physiological functions in the work activity of different groups of people: females, adults, elderly people; 6) scientific substantiation of industrial training, occupational selection and orientation; 7) creation of the modern scientifically substantiated recommendations concerning the development of optimum regimens of work and rest, equipping the working places, technologies, prevention of neurotic states, fatigability, hypodynamic, emotional overstrain, monotony; 8) improvement of the methodical level of the completed researches by modernization of equipment, extension of research methods, using the methods of mathematical and program measures for collection and the analysis of the received data.
CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR
Ergonomics is a science that studies the laws of interaction between human and techniques.
PSYCHOLOGY OF LABOUR IS A MULTIPARTITE SCIENCE THAT CONSISTS OF SEVERAL BIG UNITS WHICH INCLUDE: psychological labour expertise (professional orientation and professional selection); psychology of the professional studying that joins problems of studying and formation of work abilities, studying and working training; engineer psychology creates the demands for the working places concerning their compliance to the psychological regulations; psychological aspects of the work planning (rationalization, organization and standardizations of the working process in the psychological plan.)
Working capacity is the functional ability of the body, characterized by the quantity and quality of the work, performed with maximum intensity and duration. There is: nonspecific (general) working capacity specific working capacity that is the ability to do a certain type of activity
FATIGUE Fatigue is a state caused by the intensive and prolonged work and is characterized by the temporary decrease of work capacity. It is expressed by the decrease of the working quality and quantity, deterioration of coordination of the working functions.
THEORIES OF FATIGUE I. Theory of exhaustion: supply of glycogen, ATF is decreasing in muscles. II. Theory of poisoning: accumulation of CO 2 in muscles, milk acid, phosphorus acid, keratin and so on. III. Vegetative theory of Levitskiy: appears from fatigue of the vegetative nerve system and abnormal impulses in synapses. IV. Pavlov’s theory of the protection brake: the protection brake process appears in the CNS as the result of strong fatigability. It is the response of the nerve system to the overstrain.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING WORKING CAPACITY AND PREVENTION OF FATIGUE FOR MENTAL WORK step by step beginning to work that is very important for planning working time table and rest; evenness and rhythmic in work; succession and systematic character of work that provides the formation of the working dynamic stereotype, creates accuracy in work, causes the successful achievement of the professional habits; correct alteration of work and rest and, of course, its substitution by the others. If the type of work causes tension, monotony, high concentration of attention, it is necessary to introduce short active breaks; adequate assessment of work by the society that is doing this work.
LEGISLATION Ukrainian legislation in the branch of labour hygiene and protection is the system of the interacted acts which regulates relations in the branch of state policies concerning legal, social economic, organization and technical medical preventive measures and means, directed on the provision of a people’s health and work capacity during the working process.
CONSTITUENT PARTS OF THIS LEGISLATION DOCUMENTS INCLUDE: I. Constitution of Ukraine, articles 43, 45, 49; II. Law of Ukraine ’’On provision of sanitary and epidemic welfare of the population” № from with amendments from 1996 till 2003; III. law of Ukraine “On labor protection”, accepted by the enactment of the Cabinet of Ministers 164 from ; IV. code of laws on labor protection; V. basis of the Ukrainian legislation on the health protection № XII from ; VI. state sanitary standards and regulations on the hygiene of labor: State Standards, State sanitary norms and norms, Sanitary rules and norms, orders of Ministry of public health etc.
MAIN OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS IN METAL MINING INDUSTRY changes of air chemical composition (decrease of oxygen content, increase of carbon dioxide content, presence of carbon oxide, methane, hydrogen sulfide, sulphur dioxide, nitric oxides, exhaust gases in mine atmosphere); unfavourable microclimate; dust pollution of underground opening atmosphere; natural lighting absence; increased levels of industrial noise; increased levels of industrial vibration.
MAIN OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS IN MACHINE BUILDING INDUSTRY increased levels of industrial noise; increased levels of industrial vibration; dust pollution of the working zone air; unfavourable microclimate; pollution of working zone air with carbon oxide, phenol, formaldehyde, cyanic hydrogen, cyanides, tars, sulfurous anhydride, acids etc.; increased level of electromagnetic fields.
WAYS AND MEASURES TO PREVENT INFLUENCE INDUSTRIAL OF HAZARD ENVIRONMENT ON HUMAN ORGANISM (SLIDE 1 0F 2): 1. Hygienic substantiation of hygienic standards of industrial environment. 1. Influence on industrial environment to prepare it to the optimum hygienic demands or to indices that wouldn’t do unfavorable influence on health and working capacity by engaging the architecturally planned and technological measures (localization of the sources of pollution using new technologies).
WAYS AND MEASURES TO PREVENT INFLUENCE INDUSTRIAL OF HAZARD ENVIRONMENT ON HUMAN ORGANISM (SLIDE 2 0F 2): 3. Medical and preventive measures: - medical selection while being employed taking into consideration the psycho-physiological demands to the job; - regular medical examinations to find people with abnormal health state connected with the influence of industrial environment; - planning of medical and prophylactic nutrition for the workers of the hazardous conditions; - provide the working force with the overall, personal protective equipment and personal hygiene taking into consideration the working conditions; - setting of the special regimen of work and rest, limitation of working day hours, optimization of the working place; - sanitary education work on the prophylactic of occupational diseases. 4. Legislative and organization measures (shorter working day, longer vacation, earlier retirement, higher salary).