5Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones Oxidation reactionsHydrolysis of geminal dihalidesHydration of alkynesReactions with acid derivatives and nitrilesReaction with carboxylic acidsReaction with thioacetals
61. Aldehydes/Ketones via Oxidation Reactions From Alcohols via PCCFrom Alkenes via OzonolysisFrom Glycols via Periodic Acid Cleavage
7Synthesis Mechanism a.1 Oxidation of 1˚ alcohols a.2. Oxidation of 2° alcohols w/ PCC and base
8b.1 Oxidative cleavage of alkenes w/ O3, Zn, CH3COOH
9b.2.Ozonolysis of alkenes, if one of the unsaturated carbon atoms is disubstituted.
113. Hydration of Alkynes a. Markovnikov Addition b. Anti-Markovnikov Addition
123.a. Hydration of terminal alkynes methyl ketones
134. Reactions with Acid Halides a. Aldehydes via Selective ReductionLithium tri-tert-butoxyaluminum hydrideRosenmund reductionb. Ketones via Friedel-Crafts Acylationc. Ketones via reaction with OrganometallicsGilman reagent (organocuprates)
144.a. Aldehydes from Acid Chlorides Lithium tri-t-butoxyaluminum hydride reductionRosenmund reduction
154.b. Ketones via Friedel-Crafts Acylation Friedel-Crafts acylation aryl ketones
164.c.Ketones via Reaction with Organometallics Use of Lithium dialkylcuprates
175. Aldehydes from Esters and Amides Diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAH or DIBAL-H)
185.a. Partial reduction of certain carboxylic acid derivatives
19Attack by Alkyl Lithium reagents 6. Ketones from Carboxylic AcidsAttack by Alkyl Lithium reagents
208. Reactions with Nitriles Grignard Addition to give KetonesDIBAH Addition to give Aldehydes
217. Ketones from Thioacetals a. Thioacetal formation from an aldehyde precursorb. Alkylation of the thioacetal intermediate using alkyl lithium reagentsc. Hydrolysis of the alkylated thioacetal to give ketone product
22Characteristic Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones 1. Reduction reactionsa. Alcohol formationb. Alkane formation2. Oxidation reactions3. Nucleophilic addition reactionsa. Grignard additions to form alcoholsb. Addition of water (hydration) to form gem-diolsc. Addition of alcohols to form acetals/ketalsd. Addition of HCN to form cyanohydrinse. Addition of ammonia and ammonia derivatives
24Oxidation of Aldehydes & Ketones Conversion of aldehydes to carboxylic acidsOxidation of aromatic aldehydes / ketones to benzoic acid derivativesHaloform reaction of methyl carbonylsPeriodic acid cleavage of vicinal dials/diketones
27Structure of the Carbonyl Group Hybridization of the carbonyl carbon is sp2.Geometry of the carbonyl carbon is trigonal planarAttack by nucleophiles will occur with equal ease from either the top or the bottom of the carbonyl group.The carbonyl carbon is prochiral. That is, the carbonyl carbon is not the center of chirality, but it becomes chiral as the reaction proceeds.
28Prochiral These two products are enantiomers. In general, both enantiomers are formed in equal amount.
32Relative Reactivity of Aldehydes & Ketones Steric Reasonnucleophile is able to approach aldehydes more readily because it only has 1 large substituent bonded to the C=O carbon, vs. 2 in ketones.transition state for the aldehyde rxn is therefore less crowded and has lower energy.AldehydesKetones
33greater polarization of aldehyde carbonyl group 2. Electronic Reasongreater polarization of aldehyde carbonyl groupaldehyde is more electrophilic and more reactive than ketones.1˚ carbocation(less stable, more reactive)2˚carbocation(more stable, less reactive)ς-ς-ς+ς+Aldehyde(less stabilization of ς+, more reactive)Ketone(more stabilization of ς+, less reactive)
34Aliphatic aldehydes >>> Aromatic aldehydes Relative Reactivity of Aldehydes & KetonesAliphatic aldehydes >>> Aromatic aldehydesThe electon-donating resonance effect of the aromatic ringmakes the carbonyl group less electrophilic than the carbonylgroup of the aliphatic aldehyde.
35The carbocation intermediate The positive charge character on carbon makes this an excellent site for attack by Lewis bases (nucleophiles).Nucleophile attacks the electrophilic C=O carbon from a direction ~45˚ to the plane of the carbonyl groupAt the same time: Rehybridization of the carbonyl carbon from sp2 to sp3 occurs.
36Once we have the intermediate, what happens to it?
37Case 1: The Addition Product is Stable. The reaction stops here. This happens most often when the nucleophilic atom is carbon, oxygen, or sulfur.
38Case 2: Addition-Elimination The addition product is unstable with respect to loss of a molecule of water. This is observed most often when the nucleophilic atom is nitrogen or phosphorus.
39Case 3: Loss of Leaving Group This process is observed when X is a potential leaving group. In this case we have nucleophilic acyl substitution.
40Nucleophilic Addition of H2O: Hydration Aldehydes and ketones react with water to yield a geminaldiol. This hydration process is reversible.Nucleophilic addition of water is catalyzed by acid and base.1. Base-catalyzed
42Important only for low-molecular-weight aldehydes Examples:
43Nucleophilic Addition of Alcohols: Acetal Formation Acetals and Ketals are formed by reacting two equivalents of an alcohol with an aldehyde or ketone, in the presence of an acid catalyst.Hemiacetals and Hemiketals are formed by reacting only one equivalent of alcohol with the aldehyde or ketone in the presence of an acid catalyst. Further reaction with a second alcohol forms the acetal or ketal.A diol, with two –OH groups on the same molecule, can be used to form cyclic acetals.All steps in acetal/ketal formation are reversible.
44Aldehydes form hemiacetals faster than ketones This reaction is also reversible. But, in this case, the equilibrium can be driven to the right by an application of Le Châtelier’s Principle.
47Example Nucleophilic Addition of Alcohols 1. Formation of 2,2-Dimethoxy-propaneDry acid =HCl gasHCl in methanolHOTs2. Formation of a Cyclic Acetal
483. Cyclization of Monosaccharides Carbohydrates contain the functional groups of alcohols and aldehydes or ketones in the same molecule. They are polyhydroxyaldehydes or polyhydroxyketones.Thus they can form acetal-type products through the intramolecular interaction of these functional groups.As a model, consider the reaction:
50Nucleophilic Addition of HCN Aldehydes and unhindered ketones react with HCN to yield cyanohydrins. This formation is reversible and base-catalyzed.Mechanism :A cyanohydrin
51ExampleNotice that the cyanide ion and the acid are added in two separate steps!Sodium carbonate is used to keep the reaction medium basic.
52So, what’s it good for?Cyanohydrins formation is unusual due to the addition of protic acid to a carbonyl group, but useful because of further chemistry.This affords us with an important method of synthesizing a-hydroxy-carboxylic acids -- important intermediates in biochemical processes.Reduced with LiAlH4, yielding primary amine.Hydrolyzed with hot aqueous acid, yielding carboxylic acid.
53Addition of Organometallic Reagents The products of the addition are always alcohols.
54Whatever is attached to the carbonyl group will be attached to the resulting alcohol carbon.
55Nucleophilic Addition of Grignard (R-MgX) Grignard reagents R-MgX, strongly polarized reacts with an acid-base behavior. Nucleophilic addition of a carbanion to an aldehyde or ketone, followed by protonation of alkoxide intermediate, yields an alcohol.
56Addition of Hydride Reagents Addition of hydride ion, from LiAlH4 or NaBH4, and water or aqueous acid yields an alcohol.
57Compounds that bear an amino group Form IminesThe G group can be one of many different possibilities
58Addition-Elimination: The Formation of Imines All of the imine reactions, regardless of G, go by the same mechanism.
60Formation of Simple Imines A. Simple primary aminesAldehydes and ketones react with simple primary amines to yield imines.The equilibrium is unfavorable; the products are much less stable than the reactants.
61B. Simple secondary amines When secondary amines are allowed to react with aldehydes or ketones, dehydration of the type shown in the elimination step cannot take place (there is no labile hydrogen on the nitrogen atom of the addition product).
62If the starting aldehyde or ketone has an α -hydrogen, however, dehydration toward the α -carbon can occur, yielding an enamine.The acid catalyst is generally a dry acid, such as p-toluene sulfonic acid (HOTs)
63Amines that are used typically to form enamines:
66Formation of OximeshydroxylamineAldehydes and ketones react with hydroxylamine to yield oximes.Oximes are important derivatives in qualitative organic analysis.
67Formation of Hydrazones a hydrazineAldehydes and ketones react with substituted hydrazines to yield substituted hydrazones.The equilibrium is generally unfavorable.Exception: when R is an aromatic ring.
68Wolff-Kishner Reaction: Nu- Addition of Hydrazine Addition of hydrazine converts aldehyde/ketone to an alkane. An intermediate hydrazone forms, followed by base catalyzed double bond migration, loss of N2 gas, finally protonation yields an alkane.
69Formation of Semicarbazones semicarbazideAldehydes and ketones react with semicarbazide to yield semicarbazones.Semicarbazones are the second-most important of the derivatives of aldehydes and ketones.
70The enamine is quite nucleophilic, owing to resonance of the type: As a consequence of this resonance, the α-carbon of an enamine has a great deal of carbanion-like (nucleophilic) character.
73Enamines can react with alkyl halides -- Here’s an example.
74Nucleophilic Addition of Phosphorus Ylides: The Wittig Reaction Converts an aldehyde/ketone into an alkene.A phosphorus ylide(aka phosphorane), acts as the Nu-Ylide : A compound or intermediate with both a positive and a negative formal charge on adjacent atoms.The ylide is nucleophilic, owing to the negative charge character on carbon (structure on the right).
75A phosphorus ylide(aka phosphorane), acts as the Nu- to attack the carbonyl carbon and yields a four-membered ring, dipolar intermediate called the betaine.The betaine decomposes spontaneously to yield an alkene and a triphenylphosphine oxide.Can produce monosubstituted, disubstituted, and trisubstituted alkenes.This is a type of condensation reaction -- we use it to “dock” to large structures together.This is another example of addition-elimination.
77Conjugate Nucleophilic Addition to α-β-Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones Direct addition (aka 1,2 addition) occurs when a nucleophile attacks the carbon in the carbonyl directly.Conjugate addition (aka 1,4 addition) occurs when the nucleophile attacks the carbonyl indirectly by attacking the second carbon away from the carbonyl group, called the beta carbon, in an unsaturated aldehyde or ketone.Conjugate addition reactions form an initial product called an enolate, which is protonated on the carbon next to the carbonyl, the alpha carbon, to give the final saturated aldehyde/ketone product.Conjugate addition can be carried out with nucleophiles such as primary amines, secondary amines, and even alkyl groups like in organocopper reactions.It is the carbonyl that activates the conjugated C=C double bond for addition which would otherwise not react.