7Naming Aldehydes and Ketones Some common names accepted by IUPAC
8Boiling PointsMore polar, so higher boiling point than comparable alkane or ether.Cannot H-bond to each other, so lower boiling point than comparable alcohol.
9Carbonyl Structure Carbon is sp2 hybridized. C=O bond is shorter, stronger, and more polar than C=C bond in alkenes.
10Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes from oxidation of primary alcohols using pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC)Aldehydes from reduction of carboxylic esters using diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAH)
11Aldehydes and ketones react with nucleophiles to form addition products: nucleophile addition reactionsTetrahedralintermediateAcid catalyst
12All carboxylic acid derivatives react by the same general mechanismThe tetrahedral intermediate eliminates the weakest base
13Nucleophilic Addition Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones
15Nucleophilic Addition of H2O: Hydration Aldehydes and ketones react reversibly with water to give 1,1-diols, or geminal (gem) diolsEquilibrium favors carbonyl compound for steric reasons with the exception of formaldehyde
16Formation of a New Carbon–Carbon Bond Using Grignard Reagents