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Aldehid dan Keton. Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is common coenzyme Hydrocortisone is steroid hormone secreted by adrenal glands Penicillin G : an antibiotic.

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Presentation on theme: "Aldehid dan Keton. Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is common coenzyme Hydrocortisone is steroid hormone secreted by adrenal glands Penicillin G : an antibiotic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aldehid dan Keton

2 Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is common coenzyme Hydrocortisone is steroid hormone secreted by adrenal glands Penicillin G : an antibiotic

3 Carbonyl Compounds

4 Nomenclature of Aldehydes

5 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones

6 Nomenclature of Ketones

7 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones Some common names accepted by IUPAC

8 Boiling Points More polar, so higher boiling point than comparable alkane or ether. Cannot H-bond to each other, so lower boiling point than comparable alcohol.

9 Carbonyl Structure Carbon is sp 2 hybridized. C=O bond is shorter, stronger, and more polar than C=C bond in alkenes.

10 Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes from oxidation of primary alcohols using pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) Aldehydes from reduction of carboxylic esters using diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAH)

11 Aldehydes and ketones react with nucleophiles to form addition products: nucleophile addition reactions Tetrahedral intermediate Acid catalyst

12 All carboxylic acid derivatives react by the same general mechanism The tetrahedral intermediate eliminates the weakest base

13 Nucleophilic Addition Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones

14

15 Nucleophilic Addition of H 2 O: Hydration Aldehydes and ketones react reversibly with water to give 1,1-diols, or geminal (gem) diols Equilibrium favors carbonyl compound for steric reasons with the exception of formaldehyde

16 Formation of a New Carbon–Carbon Bond Using Grignard Reagents

17 Reduction by Hydride Ion

18 Aldehydes and ketones react with a primary amine to form an imine This is a nucleophilic addition–elimination reaction The pH of the reaction must be controlled

19 Aldehydes and ketones react with secondary amines to form enamines

20 Water adds to an aldehyde or ketone to form a hydrate

21 Addition of an Alcohol to an Aldehyde or a Ketone

22 Addition of Sulfur Nucleophiles

23 Oxidation of Aldehydes Tollens Test silver mirror

24 The reactivity of carbonyl compounds resides in the polarity of the carbonyl group in a nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction

25 The  -Hydrogen is Acidic the anion is stabilized by resonance

26 Keto–Enol Tautomerism The enol tautomer can be stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding

27

28 One molecule of a carbonyl compound acts as a nucleophile and the other carbonyl compound acts as an electrophile

29 Ketones are less susceptible than aldehydes to attack by nucleophiles

30 An aldol addition product loses water to form an aldol condensation product

31 The Mixed Aldol Addition


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