Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Aldehid dan Keton.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Aldehid dan Keton."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aldehid dan Keton

2 Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is common coenzyme
Hydrocortisone is steroid hormone secreted by adrenal glands Penicillin G : an antibiotic

3 Carbonyl Compounds

4 Nomenclature of Aldehydes

5 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones

6 Nomenclature of Ketones

7 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones
Some common names accepted by IUPAC

8 Boiling Points More polar, so higher boiling point than comparable alkane or ether. Cannot H-bond to each other, so lower boiling point than comparable alcohol.

9 Carbonyl Structure Carbon is sp2 hybridized.
C=O bond is shorter, stronger, and more polar than C=C bond in alkenes.

10 Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones
Aldehydes from oxidation of primary alcohols using pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) Aldehydes from reduction of carboxylic esters using diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAH)

11 Aldehydes and ketones react with nucleophiles to form
addition products: nucleophile addition reactions Tetrahedral intermediate Acid catalyst

12 All carboxylic acid derivatives react by the same general
mechanism The tetrahedral intermediate eliminates the weakest base

13 Nucleophilic Addition Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones


15 Nucleophilic Addition of H2O: Hydration
Aldehydes and ketones react reversibly with water to give 1,1-diols, or geminal (gem) diols Equilibrium favors carbonyl compound for steric reasons with the exception of formaldehyde

16 Formation of a New Carbon–Carbon Bond Using Grignard Reagents

17 Reduction by Hydride Ion

18 Aldehydes and ketones react with a primary amine to
form an imine This is a nucleophilic addition–elimination reaction The pH of the reaction must be controlled

19 Aldehydes and ketones react with secondary amines to
form enamines

20 Water adds to an aldehyde or ketone to form a hydrate

21 Addition of an Alcohol to an Aldehyde
or a Ketone

22 Addition of Sulfur Nucleophiles

23 Oxidation of Aldehydes
Tollens Test silver mirror

24 The reactivity of carbonyl compounds resides in the
polarity of the carbonyl group in a nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction

25 The a-Hydrogen is Acidic
the anion is stabilized by resonance

26 Keto–Enol Tautomerism
The enol tautomer can be stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding


28 One molecule of a carbonyl compound acts as a
nucleophile and the other carbonyl compound acts as an electrophile

29 Ketones are less susceptible than aldehydes to attack by nucleophiles

30 An aldol addition product loses water to form an aldol
condensation product

31 The Mixed Aldol Addition

Download ppt "Aldehid dan Keton."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google