7 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones Some common names accepted by IUPAC
8 Boiling PointsMore polar, so higher boiling point than comparable alkane or ether.Cannot H-bond to each other, so lower boiling point than comparable alcohol.
9 Carbonyl Structure Carbon is sp2 hybridized. C=O bond is shorter, stronger, and more polar than C=C bond in alkenes.
10 Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes from oxidation of primary alcohols using pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC)Aldehydes from reduction of carboxylic esters using diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAH)
11 Aldehydes and ketones react with nucleophiles to form addition products: nucleophile addition reactionsTetrahedralintermediateAcid catalyst
12 All carboxylic acid derivatives react by the same general mechanismThe tetrahedral intermediate eliminates the weakest base
13 Nucleophilic Addition Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones
15 Nucleophilic Addition of H2O: Hydration Aldehydes and ketones react reversibly with water to give 1,1-diols, or geminal (gem) diolsEquilibrium favors carbonyl compound for steric reasons with the exception of formaldehyde
16 Formation of a New Carbon–Carbon Bond Using Grignard Reagents