Presentation on theme: "Unbounding the Future: the Nanotechnology Revolution by Eric Drexler Chris Peterson Gayle Pergamit Presented by Kalyani Komarasetti."— Presentation transcript:
Unbounding the Future: the Nanotechnology Revolution by Eric Drexler Chris Peterson Gayle Pergamit Presented by Kalyani Komarasetti
Topics covered Molecular nanotechnology Molecular manufacturing Assemblers and replicators Tools used in Molecular Engineering Challenges Products developed Nanocomputers Applications in Medicine
Molecular Nanotechnology: Through and inexpensive control of the structure of matter. Also called Molecular Manufacturing Assembler: Resembles an industrial robot arm but built on a microscopic scale. They provide the microscopic “hands” that we lack today. Molecular Precision: Since we work with atoms, little errors can’t add up. The process either works, or it doesn’t. Assemblers work by making and breaking of bonds and each step is perfectly precise.
Crude Technology Today’s technology mostly works with matter. Assemblers can make chemical reactions occur by bringing the molecules together mechanically. Graphite Diamond
Nanotechnology and Microtechnology –Microtechnology doesn’t care for which atoms goes where. Nanotechnology, in contrast, positions each atom with care. Main tools used for Molecular Engineering –Proximal Probes Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) Atomic force microscope (AFM)
How do they work? STM: –Uses electrically conducting needle and surface –Maintains tiny, constant rate of current flow AFM: –The probe is dragged over the surface –Senses motions in the spring How Far Can Proximal Probes Take Us?
World Smallest Logo STM picture of name IBM Thirty-five Xenon atoms placed on the surface of a nickel crystal Stable only at temperatures near absolute zero Building structures that are both stable and precise is still a challenge
Products Molecular Electronics Gene Reader Replacing Tips for molecular manipulators Molecule of DNAProtein molecule
Nanocomputer Computers in 1990s used microelectronics With nanotechnology, computers are built from molecular electronics Either device can be used to build logic gates and computers
Replicators A machine that can make a copy of itself is called a “replicator” Each replicator includes a computer to control it and a general-purpose assembler to build things
Future Medicine with Nanotechnology Can help in building medical sensors Can work outside tissues: Skin, mouth, teeth and gums Can work inside tissues: Blood Vessels, Capillaries Can modify cells Cleaning lungsImproving brain Removing fat in arteries
Who’s Doing Nanotechnology? Zyvex is striving to become the industry leader in adaptable, affordable molecular manufacturing. It estimates 5-10years for its first product. Nanogen has developed the NanoChip TM Molecular Biology Workstation that incorporates a proprietary microchip capable of rapid identification and precise analysis of biological molecules. IBM is currently investigating carbon nanotubes (metals/semiconductors, strong materials, good conductivity), nanolithography, and silicon nanoelectronics. Lucent is currently involved in nanotechnology through its development of optical switching using MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems). Nanotechnology creates nanostructured materials (functional coatings, scratch resistant coatings, antistatic coatings, healthcare products, and advanced ceramics.
Conclusion When will it be achieved? To seek better things, we need to have better control of the structure of matter. No waste of matter