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Memory and Cognition PSY 324 Topic 5: Short-Term & Working Memory Dr. Ellen Campana Arizona State University.

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1 Memory and Cognition PSY 324 Topic 5: Short-Term & Working Memory Dr. Ellen Campana Arizona State University

2 Modal Model of Memory

3 Modal Model of Memory Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) Three stages of memory Three stages of memory Input, Output, Rehearsal (a control process) Input, Output, Rehearsal (a control process) Sensory Memory Short- term Memory Long- term Memory Rehearsal Output Input

4 Modal Model Structural Features of the Model Structural Features of the Model Sensory memory: initial stage, holds info for seconds/fractions of seconds. Large capacity. Sensory memory: initial stage, holds info for seconds/fractions of seconds. Large capacity. Short-term Memory (STM): holds 5-7 items for seconds. Control processes can extend this. Short-term Memory (STM): holds 5-7 items for seconds. Control processes can extend this. Long-term Memory (LTM): holds a large amount of information for years, even decades Long-term Memory (LTM): holds a large amount of information for years, even decades Control processes: active memory strategies controlled by individual (example: rehearsal) Control processes: active memory strategies controlled by individual (example: rehearsal)

5 Control Processes Some control processes maintain info in STS Some control processes maintain info in STS Rehearsal (repeat the items over and over) Rehearsal (repeat the items over and over) Chunking (make connections between items) Chunking (make connections between items) Visualization Visualization Some control processes affect transfer between STS and LTS (storage and retrieval) Some control processes affect transfer between STS and LTS (storage and retrieval) Memorization Memorization Recall Recall You can only process information in STS You can only process information in STS

6 Sensory Memory

7 Sensory memory is very short Sensory memory is very short Allows you to see the “trail” of a sparkler Allows you to see the “trail” of a sparkler Allows you to see movies (flipbook, tachistoscope) Allows you to see movies (flipbook, tachistoscope) Auditory Sensory Memory is also called Auditory Sensory Memory is also called Echo Echo Visual Sensory Memory is also called Visual Sensory Memory is also called Persistence of vision Persistence of vision Iconic Memory / Visual Icon Iconic Memory / Visual Icon

8 Sperling (1960): Iconic Memory X M L T A F N B C D Z P Whole report condition X F D Z C

9 Sperling (1960): Iconic Memory X M L T A F N B C D Z P Partial report condition X M L T

10 Sperling (1960): Iconic Memory What’s the point? What’s the point? Sperling was studying visual sensory memory Sperling was studying visual sensory memory Before his study, people thought that visual sensory memory could only hold 4-5 items (full report cond) Before his study, people thought that visual sensory memory could only hold 4-5 items (full report cond) The other conditions in his study showed that The other conditions in his study showed that It’s true that people can only report 4-5 items before memory decays (or fades away) It’s true that people can only report 4-5 items before memory decays (or fades away) BUT sensory memory actually encodes the whole scene BUT sensory memory actually encodes the whole scene Conclusion: Sensory Memory has a large capacity, but fast decay Conclusion: Sensory Memory has a large capacity, but fast decay

11 Sperling (1960): Iconic Memory X M L T A F N B C D Z P Partial report delayed condition M

12 Sperling (1960): Iconic Memory Summary of conditions Summary of conditions Whole report condition Whole report condition All 12 letters flash on/off -> 1s. delay -> report any All 12 letters flash on/off -> 1s. delay -> report any Partial report condition Partial report condition All 12 letters flash on/off -> auditory cue to row -> report just that row All 12 letters flash on/off -> auditory cue to row -> report just that row Partial report delayed condition Partial report delayed condition All 12 letters flash on/off -> 1s. Delay -> auditory cue to row -> report just that row All 12 letters flash on/off -> 1s. Delay -> auditory cue to row -> report just that row

13 Sperling (1960): Timing of Decay What’s the point? What’s the point? Sperling wanted to get a clearer picture of just how fast sensory information decays Sperling wanted to get a clearer picture of just how fast sensory information decays Stronger support of his hypothesis that sensory memory has large capacity and fast decay Stronger support of his hypothesis that sensory memory has large capacity and fast decay Conclusion: Within just 1 second, most of sensory memory decays, leaving only what was moved to STS via attention. Conclusion: Within just 1 second, most of sensory memory decays, leaving only what was moved to STS via attention.

14 Moray, Bates & Barnett (1965) Sternberg looked at visual memory, Moray, Bates & Barnett were interested in echoic memory (auditory sensory memory) Sternberg looked at visual memory, Moray, Bates & Barnett were interested in echoic memory (auditory sensory memory) Same task for audio domain Same task for audio domain “four-eared listening” “four-eared listening” Similar effects (advantage for partial reporting) Similar effects (advantage for partial reporting) Work after that showed Work after that showed Echoic memory has larger capacity and slower decay than visual iconic memory Echoic memory has larger capacity and slower decay than visual iconic memory

15 Modalities of Sensory Memory Modality: the “channel” (Broadbent) that different inputs come in through Modality: the “channel” (Broadbent) that different inputs come in through Auditory, visual, tactile, etc. Auditory, visual, tactile, etc. Sensory memory is modality specific Sensory memory is modality specific Saying “ba, ba, ba” while receiving auditory input messes up echoic, but not iconic memory Saying “ba, ba, ba” while receiving auditory input messes up echoic, but not iconic memory A visual mask messes up visual memory, but not auditory memory A visual mask messes up visual memory, but not auditory memory Mask: for control in experiments (as in demo) Mask: for control in experiments (as in demo)

16 Change Blindness

17

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19 Sensory Memory Now In Sternberg’s day, this evidence supported the Modal Model (which has since been replaced) In Sternberg’s day, this evidence supported the Modal Model (which has since been replaced) Sensory memory is still important and seems to be separate from other forms of memory Sensory memory is still important and seems to be separate from other forms of memory Still thought to have large capacity and fast decay Still thought to have large capacity and fast decay Thought to be important for Thought to be important for Collecting input Collecting input Holding input during initial processing Holding input during initial processing Filling in “blanks” (movies, static, etc.) Filling in “blanks” (movies, static, etc.)

20 Short-Term Memory (STM)

21 Modal Model of Memory Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) Three stages of memory Three stages of memory Input, Output, Rehearsal (a control process) Input, Output, Rehearsal (a control process) Sensory Memory Short- term Memory Long- term Memory Rehearsal Output Input

22 Short-Term Memory Short-term memory allows you to: Short-term memory allows you to: Understand sentences Understand sentences Do arithmetic Do arithmetic Dial a phone number Dial a phone number Navigate from one place to another Navigate from one place to another Know where we are and what we’re doing right now Know where we are and what we’re doing right now Memory for current tasks, last few minutes Memory for current tasks, last few minutes Momento: main character had STM, not LTM Momento: main character had STM, not LTM Clive Wearing: Real-world case in book Clive Wearing: Real-world case in book

23 Issues with STM Just as with Sensory Memory, two important issues are Just as with Sensory Memory, two important issues are Duration (how long things stay in memory) Duration (how long things stay in memory) Capacity (how many things fit in memory at a time) Capacity (how many things fit in memory at a time) Studying Short-Term-Memory is complicated because people use control processes a lot Studying Short-Term-Memory is complicated because people use control processes a lot Rehearsal seems to extend duration Rehearsal seems to extend duration Chunking seems to extend capacity Chunking seems to extend capacity

24 Duration of Short-term Memory Brown (1958) / Peterson & Peterson (1959) Brown (1958) / Peterson & Peterson (1959) Same studies at the same time, same results Same studies at the same time, same results Step 1: three letters + one number given Step 1: three letters + one number given Step 2: count backward from number Step 2: count backward from number Step 3: 3-18 s. delay (while counting backward) Step 3: 3-18 s. delay (while counting backward) Step 4: recall three letters Step 4: recall three letters

25 Duration of Short-term Memory Brown (1958) / Peterson & Peterson (1959) Brown (1958) / Peterson & Peterson (1959) Same studies at the same time, same results Same studies at the same time, same results Percent Recalled 318 Delay FIRST TRIAL ONLY

26 Duration of Short-term Memory Brown (1958) / Peterson & Peterson (1959) Brown (1958) / Peterson & Peterson (1959) Same studies at the same time, same results Same studies at the same time, same results Percent Recalled 318 Delay THIRD TRIAL ONLY

27 Duration of Short-term Memory Brown (1958) / Peterson & Peterson (1959) Brown (1958) / Peterson & Peterson (1959) Same studies at the same time, same results Same studies at the same time, same results Percent Recalled 318 Delay MANY TRIALS LATER

28 Duration of Short-term Memory Brown (1958) / Peterson & Peterson (1959) Brown (1958) / Peterson & Peterson (1959) Same studies at the same time, same results Same studies at the same time, same results Percent Recalled 318 Delay AVERAGE OVER ALL TRIALS

29 Duration of Short-term Memory The studies by Brown and Peterson & Peterson show that the percentage of letters recalled decreases with longer delays, BUT this pattern interacts with where in the series of trials the individual trail occurs The studies by Brown and Peterson & Peterson show that the percentage of letters recalled decreases with longer delays, BUT this pattern interacts with where in the series of trials the individual trail occurs Recall of letters after long delays decreases as the series of trials gets longer Recall of letters after long delays decreases as the series of trials gets longer

30 Duration of Short-term Memory What’s the point? What’s the point? Peterson & Peterson / Brown were interested in decay of short term memory Peterson & Peterson / Brown were interested in decay of short term memory It turns out, their studies demonstrate that another type of forgetting that happens in STM: proactive interference It turns out, their studies demonstrate that another type of forgetting that happens in STM: proactive interference What is already in STM affects ability to add new things What is already in STM affects ability to add new things Larger point is that forgetting in STM occurs through both decay and interference (proactive and other types too) – effective duration is 15-20s. Larger point is that forgetting in STM occurs through both decay and interference (proactive and other types too) – effective duration is 15-20s.

31 Capacity of Short-term Memory Capacities can vary from person-to-person, measured by digit span Capacities can vary from person-to-person, measured by digit span Get out some paper and something to write with, we’re going to calculate your digit span Get out some paper and something to write with, we’re going to calculate your digit span

32 Capacity of Short-term Memory Directions: Make sure you are running the next slides in presentation mode. You will see a list of single-digit numbers. Remember them. When you see “go” (but not before), write them down from memory, in order. When you are done writing, click to get the next set of digits. Directions: Make sure you are running the next slides in presentation mode. You will see a list of single-digit numbers. Remember them. When you see “go” (but not before), write them down from memory, in order. When you are done writing, click to get the next set of digits.

33 Capacity of Short-term Memory GO!

34 Capacity of Short-term Memory How many digits were in the longest row that you got completely right? That’s your digit span.

35 Capacity of Short-term Memory “My problem is that I have been persecuted by an integer. For seven years this number has followed me around, has intruded in my most private data, and has assaulted me from the pages of our most public journals. This number assumes a variety of disguises, being sometimes a little larger and sometimes a little smaller than usual, but never changing so much as to be unrecognizable…..

36 Capacity of Short-term Memory …. The persistence with which this number plagues me is far more than a random accident. There is, to quote a famous senator, a design behind it, some pattern governing its appearances. Either there really is something unusual about this number or else I am suffering from delusions of persecution.” George Miller (1956) The Magical Number 7 (plus or minus 2)

37 Capacity of Short-term Memory Miller (1956): People can remember 7±2 …. Miller (1956): People can remember 7±2 …. Digits Digits Words Words Numbers (with multiple digits) Numbers (with multiple digits) Phrases Phrases We can remember more if it’s organized We can remember more if it’s organized Chunking is combining smaller units into larger meaningful units, to improve capacity Chunking is combining smaller units into larger meaningful units, to improve capacity

38 Chunking Chunking involves using Long-term memories to organize information in Short-term memory Chunking involves using Long-term memories to organize information in Short-term memory Ericcson and coworkers (1980) Ericcson and coworkers (1980) College student had digit-span of 79 after training College student had digit-span of 79 after training Chunked digits into meaningful times for running, a sport he was familiar with Chunked digits into meaningful times for running, a sport he was familiar with Chase and Simon (1973) Chase and Simon (1973) Chess players chunk information based on meaningful points within a game of chess Chess players chunk information based on meaningful points within a game of chess

39 Chunking Chase & Simon (1973) Chase & Simon (1973) Correct Piece Placements MasterBeginner Meaningful Arrangements MasterBeginner Random Arrangements

40 Chunking & Information Coding What’s the point of all these chunking studies? What’s the point of all these chunking studies? Capacity is related to how information is represented Capacity is related to how information is represented Recall our last discussion of how information is represented, during “Cognition and the Brain” Recall our last discussion of how information is represented, during “Cognition and the Brain” Specificity coding vs. Distributed coding Specificity coding vs. Distributed coding Dealt with how information is represented by neurons’ firing rates Dealt with how information is represented by neurons’ firing rates This is called a physiological approach to coding This is called a physiological approach to coding We can also take a mental approach to coding We can also take a mental approach to coding

41 Information Coding Mental approach to coding Mental approach to coding More abstract than physiological approach More abstract than physiological approach Deals with how things are represented in the mind / thoughts Deals with how things are represented in the mind / thoughts Three Types of Coding Three Types of Coding Auditory Coding – represented as a sound Auditory Coding – represented as a sound Visual Coding – represented as an image Visual Coding – represented as an image Semantic Coding –represented through meaning Semantic Coding –represented through meaning

42 Auditory Coding Conrad (1964) Conrad (1964) Participants saw target letters (quickly flashed) Participants saw target letters (quickly flashed) Then they wrote them down Then they wrote them down Mistakes were made Mistakes were made Not likely to replace with something that looked like the target (E for F) Not likely to replace with something that looked like the target (E for F) Likely to replace with something that SOUNDED like the target (E for B) Likely to replace with something that SOUNDED like the target (E for B) Suggests that letters are represented by sound information (auditory coding) Suggests that letters are represented by sound information (auditory coding)

43 Semantic Coding Wickens and Coworkers (1976) Wickens and Coworkers (1976) Participants divided into groups Participants divided into groups Groups heard lists with different meanings (fruits, professions, meats, etc.) Groups heard lists with different meanings (fruits, professions, meats, etc.) Proactive Iterferecen for same list-TYPE repeated Proactive Iterferecen for same list-TYPE repeated Category switch caused release from proactive interference Category switch caused release from proactive interference Effect was larger for categories that were less similar Effect was larger for categories that were less similar Evidence for semantic (meaning) coding Evidence for semantic (meaning) coding

44 Short-term Memory Today The Modal Model had a nice clean vision of Short-term Memory The Modal Model had a nice clean vision of Short-term Memory All-purpose store with 15-20s duration and capacity of 7±2 All-purpose store with 15-20s duration and capacity of 7±2 Simply holds information Simply holds information How information is coded affects how much information fits in STM, but not much else How information is coded affects how much information fits in STM, but not much else This view of STM turned out to be too simple, so it has been replaced with working memory This view of STM turned out to be too simple, so it has been replaced with working memory

45 Working Memory

46 Modal Model of Memory Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) Sensory Memory Short- term Memory Long- term Memory Rehearsal Output Input

47 Working Memory Baddeley & Hitch (1974) Sensory Memory Long- term Knowledge Input Central Executive Phonologal LoopVisuospatial Sketchpad

48 Comparing Memory Models Short-term Memory (Attkinson & Shiffrin) Short-term Memory (Attkinson & Shiffrin) Single component for all types of info Single component for all types of info Mainly used for holding information for a short time Mainly used for holding information for a short time Working Memory (Baddeley & Hitch) Working Memory (Baddeley & Hitch) Three components: Three components: Central Executive Central Executive Visuospatial Sketchpad Visuospatial Sketchpad Phonological Loop Phonological Loop Used for manipulation of information during complex cognition Used for manipulation of information during complex cognition

49 Components of Working Memory Phonological Loop Phonological Loop Holds verbal and auditory information Holds verbal and auditory information Coding or source can determine whether it’s verbal/auditory information or not Coding or source can determine whether it’s verbal/auditory information or not Visuospatial Sketch Pad Visuospatial Sketch Pad Holds visual and spatial information Holds visual and spatial information Central Executive Central Executive Pulls info from long-term memory, coordinates other components, directs and maintains attention… Pulls info from long-term memory, coordinates other components, directs and maintains attention…

50 Phonological Loop A component of working memory

51 Phonological Loop The phonological loop holds verbal and auditory information (for longer than the echo) The phonological loop holds verbal and auditory information (for longer than the echo) Sources of experimental support for a component specialized for Language Sources of experimental support for a component specialized for Language Phonological similarity effect Phonological similarity effect Word-length effect Word-length effect Articulatory suppression Articulatory suppression

52 Phonological Similarity Effect The basic effect: words that sound similar are confused by people The basic effect: words that sound similar are confused by people We saw that earlier today when we discussed Auditory Coding: Condrad’s study with letters We saw that earlier today when we discussed Auditory Coding: Condrad’s study with letters Another example is the Coglab “Phonological Similarity” (which you can get extra credit for doing) Another example is the Coglab “Phonological Similarity” (which you can get extra credit for doing)

53 Phonological Similarity Effect Experiment design Experiment design Half of the time the letters were similar and half of the time they weren’t Half of the time the letters were similar and half of the time they weren’t Half of the time you had to speak (recite numbers 1- 4 in order) and half of the time you were to be quiet Half of the time you had to speak (recite numbers 1- 4 in order) and half of the time you were to be quiet Speaking in this experiment is called articulatory suppression (which we’ll come back to) Speaking in this experiment is called articulatory suppression (which we’ll come back to) The two factors were independent The two factors were independent

54 Phonological Similarity Effect The U-shape doesn’t matter for now How do similar and dissimilar compare to each other for the quiet trials? How does this support the phonological similarity effect?

55 Phonological Similarity Effect What was the point of the Phonological Similarity Effect experiment? What was the point of the Phonological Similarity Effect experiment? Demonstrated the phonological similarity effect (people confuse letters that sound similar) Demonstrated the phonological similarity effect (people confuse letters that sound similar) Key point: even though information was presented visually, people converted it to auditory Key point: even though information was presented visually, people converted it to auditory As we’ll see later, it also showed that the phonological loop is necessary for the conversion (not just holding info) As we’ll see later, it also showed that the phonological loop is necessary for the conversion (not just holding info)

56 Phonological Loop The phonological loop holds verbal and auditory information (for longer than the echo) The phonological loop holds verbal and auditory information (for longer than the echo) Sources of experimental support for a component specialized for Language Sources of experimental support for a component specialized for Language Phonological similarity effect Phonological similarity effect Word-length effect Word-length effect Articulatory suppression Articulatory suppression

57 Word-Length Effect The basic effect: When memorizing words, you can remember fewer words if the words are long The basic effect: When memorizing words, you can remember fewer words if the words are long Here’s another demo…. Just do what you did earlier for the digit span test. When you see the words try to remember them. Then, when you see “go” (but not before) write down the words you can remember. It can be any order this time. Then click to go on. Here’s another demo…. Just do what you did earlier for the digit span test. When you see the words try to remember them. Then, when you see “go” (but not before) write down the words you can remember. It can be any order this time. Then click to go on.

58 Word-Length Effect beast, bronze, wife, golf, inn, limp, dirt, star alcohol, property, amplifier, officer, gallery, mosquito, orchestra, bricklayer GO!

59 Word-Length Effect The basic effect: When memorizing words, you can remember fewer words if the words are long The basic effect: When memorizing words, you can remember fewer words if the words are long That was a demo of a real experiment …. People remembered more of the short words than long words (Baddeley & Coworkers, 1984) That was a demo of a real experiment …. People remembered more of the short words than long words (Baddeley & Coworkers, 1984) American children have a longer digit span than Welsh children (Ellis & Hennelly, 1980) American children have a longer digit span than Welsh children (Ellis & Hennelly, 1980) Because welsh numbers take longer to pronounce! Because welsh numbers take longer to pronounce! Number of words you can say in seconds is likely to be your digit span Number of words you can say in seconds is likely to be your digit span

60 Phonological Loop The phonological loop holds verbal and auditory information (for longer than the echo) The phonological loop holds verbal and auditory information (for longer than the echo) Sources of experimental support for a component specialized for Language Sources of experimental support for a component specialized for Language Phonological similarity effect Phonological similarity effect Word-length effect Word-length effect Articulatory suppression Articulatory suppression

61 Articulatory Suppression The basic finding: if you speak while memorizing (which keeps the phonological loop busy) you get worse at remembering, AND the other two effects disappear The basic finding: if you speak while memorizing (which keeps the phonological loop busy) you get worse at remembering, AND the other two effects disappear Coglab “Phonological Similarity Effect” illustrates both Coglab “Phonological Similarity Effect” illustrates both Remember: You can get extra credit for doing it Remember: You can get extra credit for doing it

62 Articulatory Suppression Which is less accurate on average, quiet or suppression (circles or squares) ? Is the phonological similarity effect (difference btwn black & white) stronger for quiet or suppression (circles or squares)?

63 Articulatory Suppression The basic finding: if you speak while memorizing (which keeps the phonological loop busy) you get worse at remembering, AND the other two effects disappear The basic finding: if you speak while memorizing (which keeps the phonological loop busy) you get worse at remembering, AND the other two effects disappear Performance worse in suppression condition Performance worse in suppression condition Phonological effect weaker in suppression condition Phonological effect weaker in suppression condition Similar findings regarding the word length effect Similar findings regarding the word length effect What is going on in these situations? Why does this support the concept of a phonological loop? What is going on in these situations? Why does this support the concept of a phonological loop?

64 Visuospatial Sketch Pad Another component of working memory

65 Working Memory Baddeley & Hitch (1974) Sensory Memory Long- term Knowledge Input Central Executive Phonologal LoopVisuospatial Sketchpad

66 Visuospatial Sketch Pad The visuospatial sketch pad holds visual and spatial information The visuospatial sketch pad holds visual and spatial information Experiments we’ll talk about show just that visual and spatial information is separate from phonological loop Experiments we’ll talk about show just that visual and spatial information is separate from phonological loop

67 Visuospatial Sketch Pad Brooks (1968) – the sentence experiment Brooks (1968) – the sentence experiment Memorize a sentence Memorize a sentence Indicate whether each word is / is not a noun Indicate whether each word is / is not a noun Condition 1: indicate by speaking Condition 1: indicate by speaking Condition 2: indicate by pointing Condition 2: indicate by pointing

68 Visuospatial Sketch Pad Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N

69 Brooks (1968) – the sentence experiment Brooks (1968) – the sentence experiment Memorize a sentence Memorize a sentence Indicate whether each word is / is not a noun Indicate whether each word is / is not a noun Condition 1: indicate by speaking Condition 1: indicate by speaking Condition 2: indicate by pointing Condition 2: indicate by pointing Results: pointing was easier than speaking for the participants Results: pointing was easier than speaking for the participants Explanation: Phonological loop was busy processing the sentence, but sketch pad was free Explanation: Phonological loop was busy processing the sentence, but sketch pad was free

70 Visuospatial Sketch Pad Brooks (1968) – the “F” demo Brooks (1968) – the “F” demo Memorize a shape (in this case an F) Memorize a shape (in this case an F) Indicate whether each corner is an “inside corner” or an “outside corner” Indicate whether each corner is an “inside corner” or an “outside corner” Condition 1: Indicate by speaking Condition 1: Indicate by speaking Condition 2: Indicate by pointing Condition 2: Indicate by pointing

71 Visuospatial Sketch Pad Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N

72 Brooks (1968) – the “F” demo Brooks (1968) – the “F” demo Memorize a shape (in this case an F) Memorize a shape (in this case an F) Indicate whether each corner is an “inside corner” or an “outside corner” Indicate whether each corner is an “inside corner” or an “outside corner” Condition 1: Indicate by speaking Condition 1: Indicate by speaking Condition 2: Indicate by pointing Condition 2: Indicate by pointing Results: Speaking is easier than pointing (the OPPOSITE of what happened before) Results: Speaking is easier than pointing (the OPPOSITE of what happened before) Explanation: Sketch Pad was busy with image, but phonological loop was free Explanation: Sketch Pad was busy with image, but phonological loop was free

73 Visuospatial Sketch Pad What is the point of these studies? What is the point of these studies? Tasks are easier when the information being held in mind and the operation being performed on it involve different types of short-term memory Tasks are easier when the information being held in mind and the operation being performed on it involve different types of short-term memory Verbal / Phonological Verbal / Phonological Visual / Spatial Visual / Spatial That means that the two types of short-term memory are somewhat independent That means that the two types of short-term memory are somewhat independent At the least, separate capacities At the least, separate capacities

74 Central Executive Another component of working memory

75 Central Executive The Central Executive does the “work” of working memory The Central Executive does the “work” of working memory Coordinating sketchpad and phonological loop Coordinating sketchpad and phonological loop Performing calculations Performing calculations Directing and maintaining attention Directing and maintaining attention A lot of what we learned about in the attention topic is part of what the central executive does A lot of what we learned about in the attention topic is part of what the central executive does Sample source of evidence: central executive’s ability to suppress is correlated with memory Sample source of evidence: central executive’s ability to suppress is correlated with memory

76 Central Executive Gazzaley and coworkers (2005) Gazzaley and coworkers (2005) Compared two versions of the task Compared two versions of the task “face-relevant”: Remember faces, ignore scenes (test: faces) “face-relevant”: Remember faces, ignore scenes (test: faces) “passive”: Just watch pictures (test: arrow right/left) “passive”: Just watch pictures (test: arrow right/left)

77 Central Executive

78 Gazzaley and coworkers (2005) Gazzaley and coworkers (2005) Compared two versions of the task Compared two versions of the task “face-relevant”: Remember faces, ignore scenes (test: faces) “face-relevant”: Remember faces, ignore scenes (test: faces) “passive”: Just watch pictures (test: arrow right/left) “passive”: Just watch pictures (test: arrow right/left) Measures: Measures: Accuracy at remembering faces Accuracy at remembering faces Brain activity in areas used for perceiving scenes Brain activity in areas used for perceiving scenes Good suppressors: less activity in scene areas (good at ignoring) Good suppressors: less activity in scene areas (good at ignoring) Poor suppressors: more activity in scene areas (poor at ignoring) Poor suppressors: more activity in scene areas (poor at ignoring) Results: good suppressors remembered more faces Results: good suppressors remembered more faces

79 Back to the big picture…

80 Working Memory Baddeley (2000) Sensory Memory Long- term Knowledge Input Central Executive Phonologal LoopVisuospatial Sketchpad Episodic Buffer Remember the other components!

81 Working Memory Now The model successfully explains a lot of data The model successfully explains a lot of data Still a useful model that is used by many Still a useful model that is used by many There is a newer one (Cowan) but details are beyond this class There is a newer one (Cowan) but details are beyond this class Still changing, though…. Still changing, though…. Baddeley was frustrated that certain things didn’t seem to “fit” (effect sizes larger or smaller, etc) Baddeley was frustrated that certain things didn’t seem to “fit” (effect sizes larger or smaller, etc) Episodic buffer has been added as a 5 th component Episodic buffer has been added as a 5 th component

82 Working Memory Baddeley (2000) Sensory Memory Long- term Knowledge Input Central Executive Phonologal LoopVisuospatial Sketchpad Episodic Buffer

83 What’s this Episodic Buffer? The episodic buffer is a “backup” that talks to the central executive and long-term memory The episodic buffer is a “backup” that talks to the central executive and long-term memory Greater duration than loop & sketch pad Greater duration than loop & sketch pad Greater capacity than loop & sketch pad Greater capacity than loop & sketch pad Very vague, still needs to be tested Very vague, still needs to be tested The point is that models are constantly being refined and modified to account for new results The point is that models are constantly being refined and modified to account for new results

84 Working Memory and the Brain

85 Prefrontal cortex involved in working memory Prefrontal cortex involved in working memory Gets inputs from the sensory areas Gets inputs from the sensory areas Gets inputs from areas involved in action Gets inputs from areas involved in action Connected to areas involved in long-term memory Connected to areas involved in long-term memory

86 Working Memory and the Brain Prefrontal Cortex

87 Working Memory and the Brain Prefrontal cortex involved in working memory Prefrontal cortex involved in working memory Gets inputs from the sensory areas Gets inputs from the sensory areas Gets inputs from areas involved in action Gets inputs from areas involved in action Connected to areas involved in long-term memory Connected to areas involved in long-term memory Physiological evidence Physiological evidence Delayed-response task in monkeys Delayed-response task in monkeys Single-cell recording in monkeys Single-cell recording in monkeys Brain imaging evidence Brain imaging evidence

88 Working Memory and the Brain Physiological evidence based on similirities between monkey and human brain Physiological evidence based on similirities between monkey and human brain Delayed-response: Monkeys can remember a location over a delay. When monkeys have PFC removed, they can’t do that very well any more. Delayed-response: Monkeys can remember a location over a delay. When monkeys have PFC removed, they can’t do that very well any more. Funahashi and coworkers (1989) Single-cell recording: When monkeys have to remember a location over time, cells in the PFC remain active Funahashi and coworkers (1989) Single-cell recording: When monkeys have to remember a location over time, cells in the PFC remain active

89 Working Memory and the Brain Brain imaging studies with humans: PFC is active when we use working memory Brain imaging studies with humans: PFC is active when we use working memory BUT it isn’t the only area that’s active! BUT it isn’t the only area that’s active! Other areas in the frontal lobe Other areas in the frontal lobe Areas in the parietal lobe Areas in the parietal lobe Areas in the cerebellum Areas in the cerebellum Activity occurs in many areas simultaneously Activity occurs in many areas simultaneously

90 Working Memory and the Brain


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