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SOCIOLOGY Today – Make-up tests – binder checks Today – Make-up tests – binder checks Thursday – Sub Thursday – Sub Friday – class party? – time for research.

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Presentation on theme: "SOCIOLOGY Today – Make-up tests – binder checks Today – Make-up tests – binder checks Thursday – Sub Thursday – Sub Friday – class party? – time for research."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOCIOLOGY Today – Make-up tests – binder checks Today – Make-up tests – binder checks Thursday – Sub Thursday – Sub Friday – class party? – time for research Friday – class party? – time for research

2 AMERICAN CINEMA We will be in the library both the 12 th (rough drafts) and the 21 st (final drafts) Today – Hollywood and the age of Television notes – begin The Sound of Music Thursday – sub – continue The Sound of Music Friday – finish The Sound of Music Monday – Hollywood and TV due – The 60’s counter culture – start The Graduate Tuesday – finish The Graduate Wednesday – Library for rough draft Thursday – Easy Rider Friday – Finish Easy Rider

3 HOLLYWOOD AND THE AGE OF TELEVISION

4 BEFORE TV’S POPULARITY From , film going was the nation’s standard mode of entertainment From , film going was the nation’s standard mode of entertainment Movies averaged 80 million in attendance weekly Movies averaged 80 million in attendance weekly $.83 of every dollar spent on entertainment was for movies $.83 of every dollar spent on entertainment was for movies The American family was the primary audience The American family was the primary audience Often called the “classic period” or the “golden age” of movies Often called the “classic period” or the “golden age” of movies

5 TECHNICAL CHANGES World War II Stops TV’s Growth World War II Stops TV’s Growth Most of the engineers in television joined the military and developed radar, sonar, radio-guided missiles and battlefield communications Most of the engineers in television joined the military and developed radar, sonar, radio-guided missiles and battlefield communications Post-War Development Post-War Development In the early 1940s the audience was excited to see any transmitted picture and the industry broadcast anything available including talentless talent, live shots of a sunset and even test patterns In the early 1940s the audience was excited to see any transmitted picture and the industry broadcast anything available including talentless talent, live shots of a sunset and even test patterns By 1948, TV set sales increased by 500 percent over the previous year, and viewership grew by 4000 percent By 1948, TV set sales increased by 500 percent over the previous year, and viewership grew by 4000 percent

6 THE RISE OF NETWORK TELEVISION At first there were four television networks: NBC, CBS, ABC and Dumont At first there were four television networks: NBC, CBS, ABC and Dumont The Dumont network lacked the radio relationships of the others and could not line up enough affiliates to be attractive to advertisers – they went out of business and later became Metromedia Television, which eventually became the Fox network The Dumont network lacked the radio relationships of the others and could not line up enough affiliates to be attractive to advertisers – they went out of business and later became Metromedia Television, which eventually became the Fox network Large studios couldn’t compete with the newly formed TV networks Large studios couldn’t compete with the newly formed TV networks

7 TELEVISION’S GOLDEN AGE 1948 to 1958 was a time of unusually good dramatic programming 1948 to 1958 was a time of unusually good dramatic programming Quality dramas were needed to attract wealthy, educated viewers who could afford television sets Quality dramas were needed to attract wealthy, educated viewers who could afford television sets Network programming originated in New York City and producers had access to up-and-coming Broadway writers, actors, and directors Network programming originated in New York City and producers had access to up-and-coming Broadway writers, actors, and directors Most television dramas were performed live because videotape recording had not been invented yet, and filming was too expensive – this created a very theater- like feel to programing Most television dramas were performed live because videotape recording had not been invented yet, and filming was too expensive – this created a very theater- like feel to programing Many critics point out that TV had more lowest common denominator content than quality shows Many critics point out that TV had more lowest common denominator content than quality shows

8 CHANGES IN MOVIE ATTENDANCE After an economic boom of the WWII years, less prosperity equated to lower movie attendance After an economic boom of the WWII years, less prosperity equated to lower movie attendance By 1952, weekly attendance had fallen to 42 Million By 1952, weekly attendance had fallen to 42 Million Started loosing its audience to TV (American family) Started loosing its audience to TV (American family) TV meant free family entertainment at home TV meant free family entertainment at home Many people started moving to the suburbs for the American dream of a house with a yard – people no longer within walking distance of a theater Many people started moving to the suburbs for the American dream of a house with a yard – people no longer within walking distance of a theater

9 THE TARGET AUDIENCE Since Hollywood could no longer rely on making movies directed at the “American family”, they needed to find new audiences Since Hollywood could no longer rely on making movies directed at the “American family”, they needed to find new audiences Saw most movie goers divided between “art-house style” and “old-fashioned” movie goers Saw most movie goers divided between “art-house style” and “old-fashioned” movie goers Art house films often came from European filmmakers – they were “ Art house films often came from European filmmakers – they were “serious artistic work, often experimental and not designed for mass appeal” America’s emergence into the international scene “damaged the self-sufficient image of America on which Classic Hollywood had depended”

10 CULT FILM/CULT STAR The 1950’s brought the idea of mega stars that gained cult followings The 1950’s brought the idea of mega stars that gained cult followings The movies they involved themselves with often found cult following as well The movies they involved themselves with often found cult following as well Stars included: John Wayne, Rock Hudson, Doris Day, Dean Martin, Jerry Lewis, Elvis Presley, Marlon Brando, James Dean, Montgomery Clift, and Marilyn Monroe Stars included: John Wayne, Rock Hudson, Doris Day, Dean Martin, Jerry Lewis, Elvis Presley, Marlon Brando, James Dean, Montgomery Clift, and Marilyn Monroe Movies that received the most attention were “super-westerns”, historical or biblical epics, and integrated musicals Movies that received the most attention were “super-westerns”, historical or biblical epics, and integrated musicals Most appealed to the “silent audience” by being neutral politically and taking “safe” genres as their main topics – reflected a conservative climate of the 50’s Most appealed to the “silent audience” by being neutral politically and taking “safe” genres as their main topics – reflected a conservative climate of the 50’s

11 PROBLEM PICTURES Hollywood did not want to loose the arts or traditional crowds Hollywood did not want to loose the arts or traditional crowds Late 50’s and early 60’s there was a general demand for serious or realistic subject matter with arts crowd and pure entertainment for the traditional viewers Late 50’s and early 60’s there was a general demand for serious or realistic subject matter with arts crowd and pure entertainment for the traditional viewers The “problem picture” combined serious social mindedness with old-fashioned story telling The “problem picture” combined serious social mindedness with old-fashioned story telling These films often included artful composition and camera work, with substantial stories and plot development These films often included artful composition and camera work, with substantial stories and plot development

12 THE ENTRANCE OF THE MOVIE STUDIOS In 1954 Walt Disney was the first movie studio leader to associate his name with a television program In 1954 Walt Disney was the first movie studio leader to associate his name with a television program In an early example of horizontal integration, Disney saw the possibilities of TV for promoting his Disneyland theme park and his feature films, as well as generating income from the program itself In an early example of horizontal integration, Disney saw the possibilities of TV for promoting his Disneyland theme park and his feature films, as well as generating income from the program itself After Warner Brothers movie studios began producing the western “Cheyenne” for ABC in 1955, all the major film studios started producing television programming as well as feature films After Warner Brothers movie studios began producing the western “Cheyenne” for ABC in 1955, all the major film studios started producing television programming as well as feature films

13 THE BLOCKBUSTER Competition with TV led Hollywood to produce bigger pictures with the biggest starts (Cult stars discussed previously) Competition with TV led Hollywood to produce bigger pictures with the biggest starts (Cult stars discussed previously) Similar topics to the cult films – the bible, history, etc. Similar topics to the cult films – the bible, history, etc. Length of the films grew to 3-4 hours Length of the films grew to 3-4 hours Budgets grew dramatically to range between million (remember this is the 50’s and 60’s) Budgets grew dramatically to range between million (remember this is the 50’s and 60’s) “Europeanization” and “Internationalization” with many spectacular non-American settings and foreign actors, particularly British actors “Europeanization” and “Internationalization” with many spectacular non-American settings and foreign actors, particularly British actors Use of the newest technology possible (Technicolor meant new colorized movies) Use of the newest technology possible (Technicolor meant new colorized movies)

14 THE SOUND OF MUSIC One of the biggest of the blockbuster movies for the time - $80 million One of the biggest of the blockbuster movies for the time - $80 million Robert Wise Robert Wise A woman leaves an Austrian convent to become a governess to the children of a Naval officer widower.


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