Presentation on theme: "Myriam Ibarra World History AP Day A, Period 3 February 11, 2013 CIVILIZATIONS OF SOUTHEAST ASIA."— Presentation transcript:
Myriam Ibarra World History AP Day A, Period 3 February 11, 2013 CIVILIZATIONS OF SOUTHEAST ASIA
MAIN IDEA Geography and the cultures of India and China influenced the early civilizations of Southeast Asia. ****** The location of Southeast Asian civilizations allowed big and powerful civilizations that neighbor them to influence them. The climate, land, and distance from the sea affected each civilization’s economy differently– some became trading civilizations, others conquered, and some others were agricultural civilizations.
KEY TERMS & PEOPLE Anawrahta: First king of Pagan from 1044 to 1077 who united a territory that included much of modern day Myanmar (Burma) through conquer. A devout Buddhist, he built thousands of Buddhist temples. His conquests provided Pagan with access to trading ports, and the kingdom prospered. Angkor Wat: Hindu temple complex built by the Khmer rulers of Cambodia in the 1100s. Trung Trac: Vietnamese nationalist and hero; one of two sisters who raised an army that drove the Chinese out of Vietnam for a short period of time. She died on 43 AD by drowning herself. Trung Nhi: Vietnamese nationalist and hero; Trung Trac’s sister and accomplice. She died on 43 AD by drowning herself.
Consists of islands south and east of the mainland. Includes: Sumatra Borneo Java (the rest of) Malaysia Brunei East Timor Indonesia Singapore The Philippines Consist of peninsulas. Includes modern: Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) Thailand Vietnam (part of) Malaysia GEOGRAPHY: MAINLAND & ISLAND SOUTHEAST ASIA Mainland Island
Ships in ports had to wait for the wind to shift in order to resume their voyage. Shaped Trade; ships relied on the monsoons to sail. Southeast Asian port cities became important economic centers. Overland trade routes in central Asia had increasingly become more dangerous. TRADE Positive EffectsNegative Effects Monsoons are seasonal winds that blow northeast in summer and southwest in winter. These shaped trade in the region.
TRADE Indian merchants had begun a prosperous sea trade with southeast Asia by the AD 100s. Overland trade routes through central Asia became more dangerous after the Han dynasty fell in 220. As a consequence, seaborne trade increased between India and China Such traders passed through Southeast Asia and exchanged their goods for spices aromatic woods and other local products.
Influences spread to parts of the mainland through conquest trade, and migration. Controlled northern Vietnam at different times, strongly influencing that region. Missionaries introduced Hinduism and Buddhism where kingdoms adopted the religions. Ideas about government, science, writing, and art. Many local rulers embraced many of these ideas adopting Indian names and political ideas. Sanskrit– ancient Indian language– became widely used. Mainly influenced: from the Malay Peninsula to many southern Vietnam kingdoms. Indian Muslim traders eventually brought Islam, forming Islamic states in Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and the Philippines. INDIA AND CHINA – TRADERS BEGAN TO INFLUENCE THE REGION IndiaChina
EARLY KINGDOMS AND EMPIRES THE PAGAN KINGDOM Early kingdoms and empires blended influences from India and China to create their own unique societies and cultures. Circ. AD 840s, the Burmans established the Pagan kingdom (in present-day Myanmar (Burma)) in the fertile Irrawaddy River valley ideal for rice farming Anawrahta (1 st king) ruled from 1044-1077; he began conquering the surrounding areas and by 1057 he had united much of present Myanmar, providing Pagan with trading port access and helping the kingdom prosper. He and his successors supported Theravada Buddhism building thousands of temples; Pagan became the center of Buddhist learning. Late 1200s: Mongols under Kublai Khan demanded tribute, but the king refused and attacked the Mongols– who crushed the Pagan army. The king fled only to be killed by his son, who agreed to the tribute. Pagan survived but lost its power. Pagan is still considered by Myanmar as its classical age because Pagan culture established principles that continue to influence Myanmar’s religion and society.
THE KHMER EMPIRE Arose in present-day Cambodia to the southeast of Pagan. Early 800s: the Khmer had began conquering kingdoms around them to build a great empire. The empire reached it height around 850 & 1220 when it controlled much of the mainland. Reflected a strong Indian influence: rulers adopted both Hinduism and Buddhism and ruled as gods. Angkor (capital city) symbolized the shape of the Hindu universe. Temple complexes were built here, such as Angkor Wat (which may’ve been used as an astronomical observatory). The empire had grown prosperous from rice farming; an irrigation system was devised to improve and expand agricultural production. The Khmer Empire prospered for about 400 years. Costly projects and invaders contributed to its decline.
TRADING KINGDOMS–SOUTH OF THE MAINLAND On Java, the kingdom of Sailendra flourished from about 750 – 850, where people relied on agriculture and trade for their livelihood. It adopted Mahayana Buddhism and is known for its impressive religious art and architecture. The Borobudur monument is Sailendra’s most famous achievement, which symbolizes the stages of the Buddhist spiritual journey. Centered on Sumatra, the wealthy Srivijaya Empire flourished from 600s to the 1200s. It gained its wealth from control of over seas traders the Malacca and Sunda straits. Therefore, rulers ensured that trade continued to pass through their empire. The people adopted Hinduism and Buddhism blending it with local beliefs. Its capital, at Palembang, became a GREAT and important center of Buddhist learning. The empire was weakened in 1025 by an Indian attack, and as its neighbor’s grew in power, its control of trade was diminished until a Muslim kingdom came and dominated trade in the region. As Islam spread through out the region, Muslim traders developed a stable trade network.
VIETNAM Strongly influenced by China. In 111BC the Han conquered the kingdom of Nam Viet and called it Annam; they ruled the region off and on for the next 1’000 years. Vietnam absorbed many aspects of Chinese civilization under Chinese rule. Vietnamese were forced to adopt the Chinese’s language, clothing, and hairstyles. They adopted the Chinese bureaucratic system and a Confucian-based civil service system. Confucianism and Daoism influenced society. Vietnam embraced Mahayana Buddhism; its art and architecture influenced culture. Despite these influences, Vietnam maintained many traditional customs(worship of nature spirits, etc.) determined to preserve its own culture and identity. The Vietnamese sometimes rebelled in hopes of regaining independence, such as the one in AD 39.
VIETNAM The fall of China’s Tang dynasty (early 900s) provided another chance at independence, which lead to success. In 939 the Vietnamese established the independent kingdom of Dai Viet in present-day northern Vietnam. The Chinese failed to re-conquer. Although the rulers of Dai Viet sent tribute to China, the kingdom remained independent Late 1200s: the Mongols invaded, but the Vietnamese defeated the Mongols and remained independent.
What factors influenced early civilizations in the region of Southeast Asia? Geography, trade, and neighboring countries (India & China) were all influential factors of these early civilizations. How did the rivers affect the development of Southeast Asia? Waterways were predominant trade routes; therefore, having or not having access to these would affect the development of an economy and the accumulation of wealth and power. How did India and China influence Southeast Asian civilizations? They spread ideas, beliefs, culture, and knowledge. In a sense, they mentored or parented Southeast Asian civilizations. Why did local rulers embrace ideas from India? They embraced Indian ideas to enhance their standing.
What were the positive and negative effects of monsoons on trade in Southeast Asia? Shaped Trade; ships relied on the monsoons to sail. Southeast Asian port cities became important economic centers. Overland trade routes in central Asia had increasingly become more dangerous. BUT… Ships in ports had to wait for the wind to shift in order to resume their voyage. What early kingdoms and empires developed in Southeast Asia? The Pagan, the Khmer, Sailendra, Srivijaya, and Vietnam. Who was Anawrahta? The 1 st king of Pagan from 1044 to 1077 who united a territory—that included much of modern day Myanmar (Burma)— through conquer. A devout Buddhist who built thousands of Buddhist temples. His conquests provided Pagan with access to trading ports, and the kingdom prospered.
Why do you think the people of Myanmar consider Pagan to be the classical age of their history? Because Pagan culture established principles that continue to influence Myanmar’s religion and society. What were the achievements of the Khmer civilization? Much control of mainland Southeast Asia, prosperous rice farming, spectacular building projects, and an irrigation system. What led to the downfall of the Khmer? Costly projects and invaders. Who were Trung Trac and Trung Nhi? Two sisters who led a rebellion against China in AD 39 by raising an army. They briefly drove the Chinese from Vietnam, but the Chinese soon regained control and the two sisters drowned themselves. What did the Vietnamese borrow from China? Its language, bureaucratic system, civil service system, and clothing and hair styles.