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Geography of Southeast Asia

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Presentation on theme: "Geography of Southeast Asia"— Presentation transcript:

1 Geography of Southeast Asia

2 Mainland Southeast Asia
Mostly mountainous running north and south In between lie valleys containing vast river systems– the Irrawaddy, Salween, Chao Phraya, and Mekong The rivers deposit soil from the mountains

3 Island Southeast Asia Archipelagos- chains of islands
a. Indonesia includes more than 13,500 islands b. Philippines has more than 7,000 islands Located on the “Ring of Fire” or the line of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean. a. Philippines have 12 active volcanoes b. Krakatoa erupted in 1883; 36,000 died

4 Climates of Southeast Asia
The region climate’s is hot and humid a. The average temperature varies 1 to 3 degree year round in Singapore b. Two seasons (wet & dry) Monsoon winds bring heavy rain to the region from June to September a. Southeast Asia averages 40 inches a year b. Not fertile because of the rain, however, rivers bring nutrients down to the lowlands

5 A Diverse Region The geography of Southeast Asia has contributed to ethnic and cultural diversity a. Laos is home to Lao, Tai, Hmong, Yao, Mon, and Khmer Upland versus lowland a. Upland people seen as less civilized b. Empires in the lowlands

6 The Importance of Religion
Animism, the belief that spirits live in the natural world Over the centuries, many elements of animism have blended with foreign beliefs brought to Southeast Asia

7 Hinduism Indian traders spread the beliefs throughout the region
Many people blended Hindu gods and goddesses with their own spirits a. Accepted the Hindu belief in reincarnation b. rejected the rigid caste system c. Today, Hindus are fond in Bali and parts of Malaysia

8 Buddhism Theravada Buddhism
a. Brought from India in the early centuries A.D. and took root in Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia b. Monasteries and Buddhist traditions shaped their culture c. Boys entered the monasteries at an early age to learn how to read and write and became monks until they leave to marry d. Some women joined Buddhist orders as nuns

9 Monasteries and Temples

10 Mahayana Buddhism Chinese Buddhists carried Mahayana Buddhism to Vietnam a. Mahayana Buddhists place less emphasis on monastic life b. Ordinary men can achieve nirvana, the condition of wanting nothing, by meditation c. Women cannot reach nirvana Monasteries are temples are centers of village life. a. Farmers turn to monks for advice and sometimes political leadership.

11 Islam 900 A.D. Arab traders brought Islam to the Malay Peninsula and islands of Sumatra, Java, and Borneo Islam is the official religion of Malaysia and Indonesia

12 Christianity In the 1500s, Christian missionaries accompanied European traders to Southeast Asia Spain conquered and converted majority of Filipinos to the Roman Catholic faith

13 How the West took Southeast Asia
Four shifts in the West affecting Southeast Asia 1. Rise of capitalism a. Economic transformation based on the ideals of private ownership and supply and demand 2. Industrialism a. Fueled by capitalism (capital and technology), it is a shift from farming to manufacturing society

14 Four Shifts (cont.) 3. Improvement in communication and transportation
a. Emergent of the steam ship and railroads b opening of the Suez Canal; don’t have to go around Africa, 1867 from London to Singapore 116 days, days 4. Philosophy and Social Belief Changed a. Social Darwinism- Racial and scientific superiority; French Civilization Mission

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