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 SAT Question of the Day #16  Activity 3.6 “News or Views: A Closer Look” p. 189  Exit Slip  (last slide) OBJECTIVES: Analyze prior knowledge about.

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Presentation on theme: " SAT Question of the Day #16  Activity 3.6 “News or Views: A Closer Look” p. 189  Exit Slip  (last slide) OBJECTIVES: Analyze prior knowledge about."— Presentation transcript:

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2  SAT Question of the Day #16  Activity 3.6 “News or Views: A Closer Look” p. 189  Exit Slip  (last slide) OBJECTIVES: Analyze prior knowledge about objectivity and subjectivity. Analyze a news story for evidence of bias.

3 Born in the days when no modest woman would admit to writing novels, Jane Austen’s name was allowed to appear on her books only after her death. a) Born in the days when no modest woman would admit to writing novels, Jane Austen’s name b) Because Jane Austen was born in the days when no modest woman would admit to writing novels, her name c) Although born in the days when no modest woman would admit to writing novels, Jane Austen’s name d) Having been born in the days when no modest woman would have admitted to writing novels, Jane Austen e) Born in the days when a modest woman would not have admitted to writing novels, Jane Austen’s name

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5 NEWS OR VIEWS? A Closer Look SpringBoard 3.6

6 NEWS OR VIEWS?  OBJECTIVE  SUBJECTIVE  BIAS

7 HOW CAN I DETECT BIAS? …and ask yourself these six guiding questions

8 What does this mean?

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10 BIAS THROUGH SELECTION AND OMISSION  “remarks greeted by jeers” or  “a handful of dissidents”  Bias through the omission of stories or details is very difficult to detect.  You have to compare news reports from a wide variety of outlets to observe this bias.

11 GUIDING QUESTION #1 Have they left out important details that might change our perspective?

12 What does this mean?

13 BIAS THROUGH PLACEMENT  Readers of papers judge first-page stories to be more significant than those buried in the back.  Television and radio newscasts run the most important stories first and leave the less significant to later.  Where a story is placed, therefore, influences what a reader or viewer thinks about its importance and suggests the editor’s evaluation of its importance.

14 BIAS THROUGH PLACEMENT  For example:  A local editor might campaign against the owning of hand guns by giving prominent space to every shooting with a hand gun and gun- related accident in his paper.  Some murders and robberies receive front-page attention while others receive only a mention on page twenty.

15 BIAS THROUGH PLACEMENT  Similarly, where information appears within an article may also reveal evidence of bias.  Since most readers only read the first few paragraphs of any given article, burying information at the end may work to suppress a particular point of view or piece of information, while placing it at the beginning emphasizes it.  The opposite might be true, though; the end could reveal the writer’s closing thought (and thus his/her personal bias) on the issue.

16 GUIDING QUESTION #2 Have they placed information at the end of a page or end of an article to de- emphasize it?

17 What does this mean?

18 BIAS BY HEADLINE  Many people read only the headline of a news item.  Most people scan nearly all the headlines in a newspaper.  Headlines are the most read part of a paper.  They can summarize as well as present carefully hidden bias and prejudices.  They can convey excitement where little exists; they can express approval or condemnation; they can steer public opinion.

19 BIAS BY HEADLINE How do these headlines steer your opinion without you even reading the article?

20 GUIDING QUESTION #3 Does the headline express approval or condemnation?

21 What does this mean?

22 BIAS BY PHOTOS, CAPTIONS, AND CAMERA ANGLES  Some pictures flatter a person; others make the person look unpleasant.  A paper can choose photos to influence opinion about, for example, a candidate for election.  Television can show film or videotape that praises or condemns.  The choice of which visual images to display is extremely important.  Newspapers run captions that are also potential sources of bias and opinion.

23 BIAS BY PHOTOS, CAPTIONS, AND CAMERA ANGLES Notice how the attractiveness of the photos, the backgrounds chosen, and the captions used create very different portrayal of the candidate.

24 GUIDING QUESTION #4 Do pictures show the subject in a flattering/unflattering way?

25 What does this mean?

26 BIAS THROUGH STATISTICS AND CROWD COUNTS  To make a disaster seem more spectacular (and therefore worthy of reading), numbers can be inflated.  For Example:  “One hundred injured in train wreck” can be the same as “Passengers injured in train wreck.”

27 BIAS THROUGH STATISTICS AND CROWD COUNTS  Crowd counts are notoriously inaccurate and often reflect the opinion of the person doing the counting.  A reporter, event sponsor, or police officer might estimate a crowd at several thousand if he or she agrees with the purpose of the assembly—or a much smaller number if he/she is critical of the crowd’s purposes or beliefs.  News magazines use specific numbers to enhance believability.

28 GUIDING QUESTION #5 Do numbers seem emphasized or downplayed?

29 What does this mean?

30 BIAS BY SOURCE CONTROL  To detect bias, always consider where a news item “comes from.”  Is the information supplied by a reporter, by an eyewitness, by police or fire officials, by executives, by elected or appointed government officials?  Each might have a particular bias that is presented in the story.  Puff pieces are supplied to newspapers (and TV stations) by companies or public relations directors—and even sometimes by the government (directly or through press conferences).

31 BIAS BY SOURCE CONTROL  For example:  The “Avocado Growers Association” might send a press release in the form of a news story telling of a doctor who claims that avocados are healthy and should be eaten by all.  A food company might supply recipes for a newspaper’s food section that recommends use of its products in the recipes.  A country’s tourist bureau will supply a glowing story, complete with pictures of a pleasant vacation.  Recently, even government agencies have sometimes issued such releases.

32 BIAS BY SOURCE CONTROL  A pseudo-event is some event (demonstration, sit-in, ribbon cutting, speech, ceremony, ground breaking, etc.) that takes place primarily to gain news coverage.  Similarly, the choice of who is quoted in an article can point to bias.  Be sure to consider who is quoted, what the quote seems to reveal or imply (negatively or positively) about the position, who is merely paraphrased, and what perspectives are unrepresented or remain silent in the article.

33 GUIDING QUESTION #6 Who gets to speak and who is only paraphrased?

34 What does this mean?

35 1. Do you belong to a social networking site (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram)? 2. If so, what are the pros and cons of doing so? If not, why don’t you belong to one?

36  As you read, mark the text by labeling any evidence of bias you encounter.  Use the guiding questions and your notes from to help you identify each type of bias present in the text.  Make a chart and provide examples of each of the five types of bias. Bias TypeExample Selection and omission Placement Headline Statistics and crowd counts Source control

37 ANALYZE IT!  After reading and marking the text, respond to the following questions:  How biased is the article’s coverage of the issue?  Does the bias undermine the credibility of the article?  Do you personally identify with the perspective the article seems to endorse?  How does this influence your evaluation?  Reflect on the following Essential Question: How do newspapers impact public opinion?

38  AUSTRALIA  AUSTRIA  BELGUIM  CANADA  CYPRUS  CZECH REPUBLIC  DENMARK  ESTONIA  FINLAND  FRANCE  GERMANY  ITALY  IRELAND  JAPAN  KOREA  NETHERLANDS  NORWAY  POLAND  SLOVAK REPUBLIC  SPAIN  SWEDEN  UNITED KINGDOM  UNITED STATES

39  JAPAN: 1 (296)  FINLAND: 2 (288)  NETHERLANDS: 3 (284)  AUSTRALIA: 4 (280)  SWEDEN: 5 (279)  NORWAY: 6 (278)  ESTONIA: 7 (276)  BELGUIM: 8 (275)  CZECH REPUBLIC: 9 (274)  SLOVAK REPUBLIC: 10 (274)  CANADA: 11 (273)  KOREA: 12 (273)  UNITED KINGDOM: 13 (272)  DENMARK: 14 (271)  GERMANY: 15 (270)  UNITED STATES:16 (270)  AUSTRIA: 17 (269)  CYPRUS: 18 (269)  POLAND: 19 (267)  IRELAND: 20 (267)  FRANCE: 21 (262)  SPAIN: 22 (252)  ITALY: 23 (250)


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