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上海第二医科大学 物理教研室 The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901 "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently.

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Presentation on theme: "上海第二医科大学 物理教研室 The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901 "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently."— Presentation transcript:

1 上海第二医科大学 物理教研室 The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901 "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him" "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him" Wilhelm Conrad R ö tgen Wilhelm Conrad R ö tgen Germany Munich University Munich, Germany Germany Munich University Munich, Germany b d b d. 1923

2 上海第二医科大学 物理教研室 What lay behind this spectacular success R ö ntgen took a shadow- graph of the bones of his wife Bertha ’ s hand with her wedding ring clearly visible.

3 上海第二医科大学 物理教研室 What lay behind this spectacular success The medical implications were immediately realized and the first images of fractured bones were being made by January 1896 even though none yet knew what the mystery rays were.

4 上海第二医科大学 物理教研室 The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979 "for the development of computer assisted tomography" Godfrey N. Hounsfield Central Research Laboratories, EMI London, United Kingdom b. b Allan M. Cormack Tufts University Medford, MA, USA b (in Johannesburg, South Africa) d. 1998

5 上海第二医科大学 物理教研室 The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979 Neither of this year's laureates in physiology or medicine is a medical doctor. Nevertheless, they have achieved a revolution in the field of medicine Neither of this year's laureates in physiology or medicine is a medical doctor. Nevertheless, they have achieved a revolution in the field of medicine

6 上海第二医科大学 物理教研室 X-CTX-CT Shortcomings of conventional X-ray Shortcomings of conventional X-ray Methods of X-CT Methods of X-CT First Imaging of X-CT First Imaging of X-CT Application Application

7 上海第二医科大学 物理教研室 Picture of the first brain scanned on the laboratory machine Laboratory machine, showing X-ray tube and detector traversing along a lathe bed across a human brain. At the end of the stroke the brain would be rotated 1 ” and the traverse would be repeated. Picture of the first brain scanned on Laboratory machine

8 上海第二医科大学 物理教研室 First clinical prototype brain scanner installed at Atkinson Morley ’ s Hospital, London In 1972 the first patient was scanned by this machine. She was a woman who had a suspected brain lesion, and the picture showed clearly in detail a dark circular cyst in the brain

9 上海第二医科大学 物理教研室 New era in Radiology In those images, we will be able to discern not only structure, but also function, physiology, or biochemistry. In this, new voyages of discovery are being prepared: In those images, we will be able to discern not only structure, but also function, physiology, or biochemistry. In this, new voyages of discovery are being prepared: voyages into man's own interior, into inner space. voyages into man's own interior, into inner space.

10 上海第二医科大学 物理教研室 The 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska InstitutetThe Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet has today decided to award The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2003 jointly to Paul C Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield for their discoveries concerning "magnetic resonance imaging"

11 上海第二医科大学 物理教研室 Paul Lauterbur Discovered that two-dimensional images could be produced by introduction of gradients in the magnetic field. Discovered that two-dimensional images could be produced by introduction of gradients in the magnetic field. By analysis of the characteristics of the emitted radio waves, he could determine their origin. This made it possible to build up two-dimensional pictures of structures that could not be visualized with other methods. By analysis of the characteristics of the emitted radio waves, he could determine their origin. This made it possible to build up two-dimensional pictures of structures that could not be visualized with other methods.

12 上海第二医科大学 物理教研室 Peter Mansfield Discovered that use of gradients in the magnetic field gave signals that rapidly and effectively could be analyzed and transformed to an image. Discovered that use of gradients in the magnetic field gave signals that rapidly and effectively could be analyzed and transformed to an image. Mansfield also showed how extremely rapid imaging could be achieved by very fast gradient variations (EPI). This approach became possible in clinical practice a decade later. Mansfield also showed how extremely rapid imaging could be achieved by very fast gradient variations (EPI). This approach became possible in clinical practice a decade later.

13 上海第二医科大学 物理教研室

14 Imaging with exact and non-invasive methods Imaging with exact and non-invasive methods Discoveries of importance to medicine Discoveries of importance to medicine Rapid development within medicine Rapid development within medicine valuable for examination of the brain and the spinal cord valuable for examination of the brain and the spinal cord Important preoperative tool Important preoperative tool Improved diagnostics in cancer Improved diagnostics in cancer Reduced suffering for patients Reduced suffering for patients SummarySummary

15 上海第二医科大学 物理教研室 MRIMRI

16 MRI of the neck. The red arrow indicates a disk herniation bulging into the spinal canal. MRI of a patient with MS (multiple sclerosis). The white round spots represent characteristic MS-plaques


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