2Standard HS-TGM-16Students will demonstrate understanding of the services provided in diagnostic imaginga. Differentiate between the types of diagnostic imaging techniques, including but not limited to: diagnostic, treatment, and monitoring systems and the types of medical information/records each generates including Computer Assisted Tomography (CAT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emissions Tomography (PET), Ultrasound Imaging, X-Rays, arrhythmia monitoring, pulmonary monitoring, and Obstetrical/Neonatal monitoring.b. Examine the types of medical information/records each generates including but not limited to: Computer Assisted Tomography (CAT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emissions Tomography (PET), Ultrasound Imaging, X-Rays, arrhythmia monitoring, pulmonary monitoring, and Obstetrical/Neonatal monitoring.c. Discuss the impact of technology on diagnostic imaging techniques and treatments such as fiber optics and laser therapy.
3Essential QuestionsHow do various diagnostic imaging procedures compare including cost, risk, value?How has technology impacted diagnostic imaging techniques and treatments?What types of information is generated from the various diagnostic imaging procedures and treatments?
4ObjectivesCompare and contrast the five types of diagnostic imaging devices.Discuss the trends in diagnostic imaging procedures.Explain historical events and developments in imaging devices.
5What is Diagnostic Imaging? Diagnostic imaging refers to technologies that doctors use to look inside your body for clues about a medical condition. Different machines and techniques can create pictures of the structures and activities inside your body.
6Types of Diagnostic Imaging The technology your doctor uses will depend on your symptoms and the part of your body being examined.Types of diagnostic imaging include:X-raysCT scansNuclear medicine scansMRI scansUltrasoundPET/CT
7Imaging TestsMany imaging tests are painless and easy. Although, some require you to stay still for a long time inside a machine. This can be uncomfortable. Certain tests involve radiation, but these are generally considered safe because the dosage is very low.For some imaging tests, a tiny camera attached to a long, thin tube is inserted in your body. This tool is called a scope. The doctor moves it through a body passageway or opening to see inside a particular organ, such as your heart, lungs or colon. These procedures often require anesthesia.
8HistoryOver the years the types of diagnostic imaging techniques have advanced.The newer techniques are less invasive and reduce the patients exposure to radiation.
9A Look at History: Shoe Fitting X-ray Device Shoe fitting x-ray machines were common in department stores in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s.The purpose of the machine was to produce an image of how your shoe fit.By the 1970s, the radiation hazard of the shoe fitting x-ray was realized, eliminating its use as a shoe fitting device.
10The Shoe Fitting X-ray Device Randy Glance,CTAE Resource Network
11The Discovery of X-rayWilhelm Conrad Roentgen detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength and produced a picture of his wife’s hand; known today as the x-ray.Roentgen originally named his discovery the x-ray because it was an unknown type of radiation and this name has stuck.The photo of his wife, Anna Berthe, was the first x-ray and was taken on December 22, 1895.For his discovery, Roentgen was awarded the Noble Peace Prize in 1901.
12X-rayHealth care professionals use them to look for broken bones, problems in your lungs and abdomen, cavities in your teeth and many other problems.X-ray technology uses electromagnetic radiation to make images. The image is recorded on a film, called a radiograph. The parts of your body appear light or dark due to the different rates that your tissues absorb the X-rays. Calcium in bones absorbs X-rays the most, so bones look white on the radiograph. Fat and other soft tissues absorb less, and look gray. Air absorbs least, so lungs look black.X-ray examination is painless, fast and easy. The amount of radiation exposure you receive during an X-ray examination is small.
13New Developments in X-ray X-rays are moving from film to digital files with both computed radiography and digital radiography.The advantage for the patient is that use of digital images reduces costs because there is no longer a need for the time and cost of processing film. Some believe digital files are more dependable storage.Another advantage is the use of real time images during surgery.Doctor offices and hospitals will also be able to do more patient exams with this new technology.
14Computed tomography (CT) Scans Computed tomography (CT) is a diagnostic procedure that uses special X-ray equipment to create cross-sectional pictures of your body. CT images are produced using X-ray technology and powerful computers.The uses of CT include looking forBroken BonesCancersBlood ClotsSigns of Heart DiseaseInternal Bleeding
15CTDuring a CT scan, you lie still on a table. The table slowly passes through the center of a large X-ray machine. The test is painless. During some tests you receive a contrast dye, which makes parts of your body show up better in the image.
16Nuclear ScansNuclear scanning uses radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. Nuclear scans involve a special camera that detects energy coming from the radioactive substance, called a tracer. Before the test, you receive the tracer, often by an injection. Although tracers are radioactive, the dosage is small. During most nuclear scanning tests, you lie still on a scanning table while the camera makes images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes.Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including cancers, injuries and infections. They can also show how organs like your heart and lungs are working.
17Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) MRI’s do not use X-raysMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn ligaments to tumors. MRIs are very useful for examining the brain and spinal cord.During the scan, you lie on a table that slides inside a tunnel-shaped machine. The MRI scan takes approximately minutes, and it is important for the patient to stay as still as possible during the exam. The scan is painless. The MRI machine makes a lot of noise. The technician may offer you earplugs.
18MRI with ContrastDuring an MRI, the patient may be given an injectable contrast, or dye. This contrast alters the local magnetic field. Normal and abnormal tissue will respond differently to this contrast.
19Future of MRIThe MRI should keep seeing advances that will allow the clinical process to be much faster for the patients, and produce a highly detailed image.As MRI technology advances patients will be provided better treatments as doctors understand more and more of how the brain works.Further advances provide the possibility of taking 3-D images instead of just the MRI slices of the brain.
20UltrasoundUltrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and structures inside the body.Health care professionals use them to view the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, liver and other organs.During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound tests to examine the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound does not involve exposure to radiation.
21Ultrasound Machine Costs about $200, 000 The probes each cost between $10,000-$15,000Can do 2D/3D/4D ultrasoundAbdominal or vaginalDone by a Diagnostic Medical Sonographer (DMS)
22UltrasoundDuring an ultrasound test, a special technician or doctor moves a device called a transducer over part of your body. The transducer sends out sound waves, which bounce off the tissues inside your body. The transducer also captures the waves that bounce back. Images are created from these sound waves.
27Future of Ultrasound All ultra sound is going toward real-time 3-D Many believe the biggest impact on healthcare for the ultrasound it its portability.Advantage to patients: The portable ultrasound has the potential to bring the ultrasound directly to the patient. This ranges from the intensive care patient not having to move rooms in the hospital to allowing more access for rural areas and disaster sites. This would all lead to faster and more effective diagnoses that will benefit the patients greatly.
28PET/CTPET/CT; which not only helps doctors locate the lesion more accurately (CT), but also helps determine how active the lesion is on the molecular level (PET).
29Diagnostic Imaging Trends Diagnostic imaging plays a critical role in health care, and technological advances has increased its role.New technology means a great advantage for the patient to have an early diagnosis.These noninvasive diagnostics allow doctors to provide the best diagnosis and treatment with fewer stress on the patient.